Final Fa Social Science Ix for Web_2010

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SOCIAL SCIENCECLASS-IX HISTORY GEOGRAPHY POLITICAL SCIENCE ECONOMICS DISASTER MANAGEMENTFORMATIVE ASSESSMENTSOCIAL SCIENCECLASS IXShiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 IndiaHISTORYGEOGRAPHYPOLITICAL SCIENCEECONOMICS DISASTER MANAGEMENTTeachers Manual on Formative Assessment in Social Science, Class IXPRICE : Rs.FIRST EDITION August, 2010 CBSE, IndiaCOPIES:PUBLISHED BY : The Secretary, Central Board of SecondaryEducation, Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110092DESIGN, LAYOUT : Multi Graphics, 5745/81, Reghar Pura, Karol Bagh, New Delhi-110005, Phone : 25783846PRINTED BY :ii"This book or part thereof may not be reproduced byany person or agency in any manner."~ii: +i =f~i-= +- i zfi+i~ii +: 1 +. = +-i ~ii: + -+ -if:+ +i z +-i z i i f+ z +; =f~i- +i i- +: ~i: =+ ~i ii, =ii~i, :i ~i: :ii- +i ~i : +:, i ; ii + f( z = i: :ii ~i i - +i f: +:- i - ~i ii +i z = =i( : i ~i: -+i i - +:,; ~ii: +i ~ii, (+i ~i: ~ i i +i :ii +: ~i : = ~ii : i ,i; i +i :ii +: ~i: ~izi- f+( i- : :i +i =i +:,; ~ii: + =~ii ii = ==:=i ~i: ==i- ~ii- +i ~ii-i +i f-=i i +: i ~= , ~ii ii ~i: i i : ~i~if: =~ii ~i ~ i i = : zi, (=i ii~i +i -i +: i fii + =-=i- + f ; z ,; z=i:i =i=if=+ =,f +i i:iii ::i +i =z - ==n ~i: =+i :iii +:,; i,f+ i:i +i f=+ ~ -, ni, - i , ~i: - i z , :ii +: ~i: =+i =~- +: ii ifi=i i + f i~ii : i ,; if-+ f+ii, =i-i ~i: i -i- ii =~i: +i ~ii-i +i f+i= +:,n; =if-+ =f-i +i =:fi : i ~i: fz =i = : :z ,~i; f~ ~i: =i=fz+ fff~i + =~ii iii = -+i +i ~i: - +i = i= +: f== :i f-:: z ( -- ~i: f~ +i -: i:i +i rn, +rrta rn, +rrta r q = r r +r--= - =nr r t rft +r r arr-n n rtr r f q , arr s = =nta rnftr r.=rnrf, =rfr = r t tr fa -r,frt, =f+rfa, frr=, n= r t s r =r t tarar, farar =rt = = t t =narzrta tr fq, arr s = n, fa t nftnr = r t t rr t qar = r t = = rz a r =f f ra t rt ar zr fq z=r rrt =t ;= =fr =+rr n = r artt=r ze rt, +v+v ; r qa rtr ;= =f r r =nta, = f ffna =rt =r-nrfa ta r+. =fr ( rt=r =rrr =ffn, +vze t rtr z rt r ( s .+.+vzz = " +r- - =- rarr-n nrtr trr t fatrrf a z. =fr ( rt=r =rrr = f fn, +vze t rtr z rtr ( s .+.+vzz = , " t rr t qar trr t fatrrf a THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAPREAMBLE1WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens :JUSTICE, social, economic and political;LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all 2FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the [unity and integrity of the Nation]; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAChapter IV AFundamental DutiesARTICLE 51AFundamental Duties - It shall be the duty of every citizen of India-(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;(e) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life and to have compassion for living creatures;(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.1. Subs, by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for "Sovereign Democratic Republic (w.e.f. 3.1.1977)2. Subs, by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for "unity of the Nation (w.e.f. 3.1.1977)AcknowledgmentsPrefaceContinuous and Comprehensive EvaluationSchool Based Continuous & Comprehensive EvaluationContinuous & Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation in Social ScienceHistoryGeographyIIIIXXLI3-44TERM-ISection I : Events and Processes Chapter-1 The French RevolutionChapter-2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian RevolutionChapter-3 Nazism and the Rise of HitlerTERM-IISection II : LIvelihoods, Economies and SocietiesChapter-4 Forest society and colonialismChapter-5 Pastoralists in the Modern WorldChapter-6 Peasants and FarmersSection III : Every day Life, Culture and PoliticsChapter-7 History and Sport : The Story of CricketChapter-8 Clothing : A Social History45-78TERM-IChapter-1 India-Size & LocationChapter-2 Physical features of IndiaChapter-3 DrainageUNIT 1 : INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD - 1UNIT 2 : INDIA : LAND AND PEOPLECONTENTSPage No.TERM-IIChapter-4 ClimateChapter-5 Natural vegetation and Wild lifeChapter-6 Population79-104TERM-IChapter-1 Democracy in the Contemporary WorldChapter-2 What is democracy ? Why democracy?Chapter-3 Constitutional DesignTERM-IIChapter-4 Electoral PoliticsChapter-5 Working of the InstitutionsChapter-6 Democratic Rights105-132TERM-IChapter-1 The story of village PalampurChapter-2 People as a resourceTERM-IIChapter-3 Poverty as a challenge facing IndiaChapter-4 Food security in India133-141TERM-IChapter-1 Getting Acquainted with Disaster ManagementChapter-2 Specific Hazards and MitigationTERM-IIChapter-3 Preventing common Human Induced DisastersChapter-4 Community Planning for Disaster ManagementPolitical ScienceEconomicsDisaster ManagementUNIT 3 : DEMOCRATIC POLITICS -1UNIT 4 : UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTUNIT 5 : DISASTER MANAGEMENTPage No.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman - CBSESmt. Chitralekha Gurumurthy, Director - AcademicsDr. Sadhana Parashar, Head - I & REDITING COMMITTEEADVISORY BODYMATERIAL PRODUCTION GROUPDr. Kamala Menon, Mother's International SchoolDr. M Sailaja, Gargi College, University of DelhiMs. M. Bose, Retd. HOD from Springdales School, DelhiDr. Nandini Dutta, Miranda College, University of DelhiDr. Radhika Menon, Mata Sundari College, University of DelhiDr. Pankaj Pushkar, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, DelhiMs. Sugandh sharma, Education Officer, CBSEMr. P. Mani, Education Officer, CBSEMrs. M. Bose, Retd. HOD Springdales School.Ms. Anita Raina, Step by Step School, NoidaMs. Bina Srikumar, CRPF School, DelhiDr. Kirpal Singh, Retd. Principal, Guru Harkishan Public School, DelhiMr. S. S. Rastogi, Retd. from Directorate of Education, DelhiMs. Archana Chatterjee, New State Academy, DelhiMs. G. Ramakirpal, Lady Irwin School, New DelhiDr. R. S. Pasricha, Retd. from Directorate of Education, DelhiMs Sheetal Chopra, New State Academy, New DelhiMs. Shivani Singh, New State Academy, New DelhiMs. Ambika Gulati, Sanskriti School, New DelhiMs. Priya Vaidya, Sardar patel Vidyalaya, New DelhiMs. Annanya Roy, Mother's International school, DelhiMs. Subhasini Sinha, Modern School, Barakhamba Road, New DelhiMs. Sugandh Sharma, Education Officer, CBSE COORDINATION PREFACEt the centre of the transformation that School Education is undergoing presently is the new perspective to assessment and its relationship to the teaching-learning process. It is widely agreed that assessment influences what is taught and how teaching and learning are delivered. There is also a widespread belief among educational researchers and practitioners that assessment can and often does constrain rather than enhance learning outcomes. If we restrict our choices of teaching and learning activities to exercises that simply rehearse for examinations, then we run the risk of failing our learners during the teaching and learning process as a whole. Another pitfall in working towards assessment is that learners may concentrate simply on doing the bare minimum needed in order to guarantee a pass.Hence the challenge of changing the traditional system of examination and evaluation has emerged as a major focus. By introducing Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation at the secondary level in all its affiliated schools, CBSE has sent out a clear message that assessment must take into account all the aspects of the personality development of the learner and that since learning is a continuous process, assessment also has to be continuous. CCE fundamentally shifts the focus from testing to learning by perceiving assessment as an integral part of the overall framework of teaching and learning. It follows from this that when incorporated into classroom practice, assessment tends to lose its individual identity, getting subsumed into the instructional process.Such a conceptualization necessitates a greater thrust on formative assessment. It must be said, at this stage, that though many schools have been practicing CCE and as a consequence, formative assessment procedures for classes I - VIII for many years, the overall thrust still continues to be to use assessment for 'measuring' rather than 'enhancing' learning. In other words, there has been a general lack of conceptual clarity with regard to the formative assessment practices among stakeholders as a result of which, many apparently formative assessment tools and procedures have, in effect, been summative in nature, ie, exercises to gauge, at a particular point in time, student learning relative to content standards. Although the information gleaned from this type of assessment is important, it can only help in evaluating certain aspects of the learning process.It brings us to the vital need of stren