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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Flavors and Flavorings

    Chapter 7

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    After studying this unit

    You will be able to: Understand the basic principles of the

    physiology of the sense of taste andsmell

    Recognize a variety of herbs, spices, oils,vinegars, wines and other flavorings

    Understand how to use flavoringingredients to create, enhance or alterthe natural flavors of a dish

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Flavors

    The combination of tastes, aromasand other sensations caused by thepresence of a foreign substance in themouth

    Flavor is to food what hue is to colorand what timbre is to music

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Tastes

    The sensations we detect when asubstance comes in contact with thetaste buds on the tongue Sweet

    Sour

    Salt

    Bitter Umami

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    The Human Tongue

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    The Human Olfactory System

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Other Factors That Affect FlavorPerception

    Temperature

    Consistency

    Presence of contrasting tastes Presence of fats

    Color

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Compromises to the Perception ofTaste

    Age

    Health

    Smoking

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Food Flavor Profiles

    Top notes or high notes The sharpest first flavors or aromas

    Middle notes The second wave of flavor, more subtle

    Low notes The most dominant lingering flavor

    Aftertaste or finish The final flavor

    Roundness The unity of a dishs various flavors

    Depth of flavor A broad range of flavors

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Seasoning

    An item added to enhance the naturalflavors of a food without changing itstaste

    Salt is the most common seasoning

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Herbs and Spices

    Herbs Any of a large

    group of

    aromatic plantswhose leaves,stems or flowersare used as a

    flavoring Used either dry

    or fresh

    Spices Any of a large

    group of aromatic

    plants whose bark,roots, seeds, budsor berries are usedas flavoring

    Usually used in dryform, whole orground

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Condiment

    Any item added to a dish for flavor,including herbs, spices and vinegars

    Also refers to cooked or preparedflavorings such as preparedmustards, relishes, bottled saucesand pickles

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Seasoning and Flavoring Guidelines

    Flavorings should not hide the taste oraroma of the primary ingredient

    Flavorings should be combined in balance,so as not to overwhelm the palate

    Flavorings should not be used to disguisepoor quality or poorly prepared products

    Flavorings should be added sparingly whenfoods are being cooked over a long period

    of time Taste and season foods frequently duringcooking

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Salt The Most Common Seasoning

    Culinary salt or table salt

    Rock salt

    Kosher salt

    Sea salt

    Sel gris

    Fleur de sel

    Specialty salts Smoked salt

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Oils

    A type of fat that remains liquid atroom temperature

    Cooking oils are refined from variousseeds, plants and vegetables

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Types of Oils

    Vegetable oils Cottonseed, peanut, grape seed, sesame seed

    and soybean

    Canola Rapeseeds

    Nut oils Walnut, hazelnut and others

    Olive oil

    Extra virgin, virgin and pure Flavored oils

    Infused with basil, garlic, citrus and spices

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Condiments

    Relishes

    Pickles

    Chutneys

    Fish sauce

    Ketchup

    Prepared mustards Yellow, Dijon, whole grain

    Soy sauce

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Wines

    Vinification

    Vintner

    Tannins Fermentation

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Wines of the United States

    Most wines are named for the varietyof grape that is used

    The U.S. government requires that75% of the wine comes from aparticular grape

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Red Varietals

    Cabernet Sauvignon

    Merlot

    Nebbiolo Pinot Noir

    Syrah

    Sangiovese

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    White Varietals

    Chardonnay

    Riesling

    Sauvignon Blanc

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Sparkling Wines

    Methode Champenoise

    Riddling

    Disgorging Charmat process

    Dosage

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Fortified Wines

    Port

    Sherry

    Madeira Marsala

    Vermouth

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Evaluating Wines

    Aroma

    Flavor

    Body

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Matching Food with Wine

    Colors

    Tastes

    Strengths Opposites

    Origins

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    2007 Pearson EducationUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved

    Labensky, et al.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 4thedition.

    Selecting Wines to Use as Flavorings

    Cooking wines Inferior product

    Have added salt

    Do not cook with a wine that youwould not drink