FrontPage: See next page The Last Word: Ch2 RKC or Online Review Slide 2 FrontPage: Who or what causes all of this stuff to get to these places? The Last Word: Ch2 RVK or Online Review Slide 3 or Capitalists do it with an invisible hand Chapter 2, Section 1 Slide 4 Did you ever think that making a speech on economics is a lot like peeing down your leg? It seems hot to you, but it never does to anyone else. - President Lyndon B. Johnson Slide 5 Introduction You probably have set some goals in your life, such as going to college, learning a trade, or opening a business. If you were to compare your personal goals to the goals of a North Korean teenager, the lists might vary widely. Slide 6 Introduction One of the reasons for this variance is that each of these persons lives in a community or nation with a different economic system, or way of determining how to use scarce resources to satisfy peoples wants and needs. In this section, youll learn about the different kinds of economic systems in the world. Slide 7 The Three Basic Economic Questions What to produce? How to produce? Who to produce for? Slide 8 Nations must balance available resources with desired products/services Will more butter be produced or more guns? Will we push for medical improvements or try to prevent deaths from natural disasters? Do we need to stop making VCRs? Slide 9 How goods and services will be made. What methods will we use? Will more workers be hired? Will capital goods be used instead of hiring more workers? Self-checkout or more cashiers? Slide 10 After goods and services are produced, how will the goods and services be distributed among a societys members? Prices Government bureaucrats Majority rule Tradition, or religion First-come, first-serve Slide 11 What to produce? How to produce? Who to produce for? Slide 12 Apple decides to hire more tech workers to iron out potential issues before the release Slide 13 Apple decides to create the iPhone 6, rather than moving to another line of products (payment system, for example) Slide 14 Apple markets the iPhone 6 for a price starting at $199 and up Slide 15 How a society answers these three questions is what determines the type of economic system that country has Often times, WHO answers these questions in a society can tell you a lot about that nations economy AND political system We can also look at the GOAL(s) of the society to find out their economic system Who owns the Means of production? Non-human capital, technology and resources Slide 16 GOAL: Survival 3 questions answered by/means of production owned by: Tribe, family, tradition, beliefs Handed down for generations Everyone has a role Not as productive due to lack of technological advancement and surplus goods A tribe in the jungle of the Amazon would be an example of this system Slide 17 Officials consider the needs of the country and allocate resources accordingly Wants of consumers are rarely considered North Korea and Cuba are examples; Soviet Union used to be GOAL: Equal and Fair Distribution to all 3 questions answered by/means of production owned by : Government Slide 18 GOAL: Efficiency, Free choice, profit 3 questions answered by/means of production owned by individuals Consumers spend money as they wish, sell their labor Producers decide what goods and services they will offer Seeking your own interests benefits others Invisible hand consumer demand drives production, creates profits (and losses), improves products, benefits consumers and producers Slide 19 FrontPage: Sit with a partner if you want. The Last Word: Ch2 RKC or Online Review Slide 20 State planners in country A met to decide what the country should focus on producing. After much deliberation, they decided it would be in the countrys best interest to use their limited resources to produce automobiles instead of other consumer goods, like electronics or textiles. The state planners passed their decisions down to factories, and allocated to them raw materials, workers, and other resources needed to produce automobiles. Factories were then told how much they should produce with these resources and who the final products should be shipped to. Slide 21 In country B, business owners decide what to produce, how much to produce, and who to produce for. The CEO of Black and Gold Audio, one of the leading audio producers in the country, recently decided to increase production levels of the countrys newest mp3 player, and at the same time decrease production levels of their most popular CD player. The reason for the emphasis on mp3 players is that demand for CD players has decreased dramatically as mp3 technology has taken over the market. Simply put, there is more profit to be made in the mp3 market. Slide 22 In country C, people rarely engage in market transactions. For the most part, they dont need to. Families grow their own vegetables and raise their own animals or hunt to get meat. Certain times get tough for people in country C, like when the winters are especially cold or animals change their migration patterns. For this reason, it is important that families stock up in good times and develop relationships with neighbors with whom they can share or trade. Slide 23 In country D, business owners make most economic decisions. As long as they abide by fair trade policies, they can decide what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce without government intervention. These decisions are made by business owners depending on what happens in the market. For example, a computer manufacturer recently developed a new gaming system, but decided to wait until closer to the holidays to release this system to the public because it believed that anticipation among consumers would allow the company to charge a higher price for the system.