Gas serra , emissioni, danno globale , danno locale ...· Gas serra , emissioni, danno globale , danno

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Gas serra , emissioni, danno globale , danno locale. Quanto costa la salute?

Vincenzo Migaleddu

GHGs increasing concentranction and temperature effects

Climate Change and Global Warming :

The total temperature increase from 18501899 to 20012005 is0.76C [0.57C to 0.95C].

Temporal overview on short-

term glacier length changes.

The number of advancing

(blue) and retreating (red)

glaciers are plotted as

stacked columns in the

corresponding survey year.

Glacier of Jostedalsbreen, Norway,

GHGs :Climate Change and Global Warming

CO2, Methane (CH4) ,N2O, HFCs, PFCs,SF6,Methane warms the earth 23 times, and nitrous oxide 296 times as muchas the same mass of CO2

Carbon footprint when it includes all GHGs,is expressed as a CO2 equivalent units.

Radiative forcing is used to assess and compare the anthropogenic and natural drivers of climate change. It is defined as the change in net(down minus up) irradiance (solar plus longwave; in W m2) at the tropopause after allowing for stratospheric temperatures to readjust to radiative equilibrium, but with surface and tropospheric temperatures and state held fixed at the unperturbed values [Ramaswamy et al.


Carbon sink is the natural mechanism that removes Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, such as the absorption of carbon dioxide by growing trees or existing forests or by coopling ocean-atmophere. An estimated CO2 3.2 billion metric tons is added to the atmospher annually

Carbon Sink

USA CO2 Emission

Source : ENEA on data ENERDATA S.A 2006

Global CO2 EmissionThe big overtaking

In the 2004 CO2 production of non OECD countries (China , India, Indonesia , South- Africa , Brasil, Malaysia, Turchey, Russia) overcomesthat of industrialized world.2005 confirms the data

(IPCC) concluded with a very high level of scientific confidence that Climate change currently contributes to the global burden of disease and

premature death

OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030

The consequences of environmental policy inaction

Global emissions of greenhouse gases are projected to grow by a further 37%, and 52% to 2050. This could result in an increase in global temperature over pre-industrial levels in the range of 1.7-2.4 Celsius by 2050, leading to increased heat waves, droughts, storms and floods, resulting in severe damage to keyinfrastructure and crops.

OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030

A considerable number of todays known animal and plant speciesare likely to be extinct, largely due to expanding infrastructure and agriculture, as well as climate change. Food and biofuel productiontogether will require a 10% increase in farmland worldwide with a further loss of wildlife habitat. Continued loss of biodiversity is likely to limit the Earths capacity to provide the valuable ecosystem services that support economic growth and human well-being.

The consequences of environmental policy inaction

OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030

Water scarcity will worsen due to unsustainable use and management of the resource as well as climate change; the number of people living in areas affected by severe water stressis expected to increase by another 1 billion to over 3.9 billion

The consequences of environmental policy inaction

OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030

Health impacts of air pollution will increase worldwide, with the number of premature deaths linked to ground-level ozone quadruplingand those linked to particulate matter more than doubling.Chemical production volumes in non-OECD countries are rapidlyincreasing, and there is insufficient information to fully assess the risks of chemicals in the environment and in products.

OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030

Reducing our impact on the global climate requires individuals, Communities and governments to make the behaviour and policy changes such as cleaner energy and more sustainable transport systems that will also bring immediate health benefits

Climate change and human health

Michelozzi P. e all J of Epidemiology e Comunity Health 2006

Increasing frequencies of heat waves: recent analyses show that human-induced climate change significantlyincreased the likelihood of the European summer heat wave of 2003

Changes in climate likely lengthen the transmissionseasons of important vector-borne diseases, and alter their geographic range, potentially bringing them to regions that lack population immunity and/or a strong publichealth infrastructure

Fonte: Lindgren et al. Climate Change and AdaptationStr ategies for Human Health. B. Menne and K. L. Ebi: 131. 2006.

Climate change producing alterations in: food webs, lipiddynamics, ice and snow melt, and organic carbon cycling could result in increased POP levels in water, soil, and biota. There is also compelling evidence that increasingtemperatures could be deleterious to pollutant-exposed


Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and theenvironment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include damage to the natural and built environment, such as effects of air pollution, occupational disease and accidents. The ExternE project is the first comprehensive attempt to use a consistent 'bottom-up' methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with arange of different fuel cycles.




Total 897000000/Euro per year