Handbook of Milk Composition

  • View
    447

  • Download
    59

Embed Size (px)

Text of Handbook of Milk Composition

Handbook of Milk Composition

Editadty

Robert G.Jensen

HANDBOOK OF MILK COMPOSITION

FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

International SeriesSERIES EDITOR Steve L. Taylor University of Nebraska ADVISORY BOARD Daryl B. Lund Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Douglas Archer FDA, Washington, DC Jesse F. Gregory, I11 University of Florzda Susan K. Harlander Land O'Lakes, Inc. Barbara 0. Schneeman University of Cal$ornia, Davis

A complete list of the books in this series appears at the end of the volume.

HANDBOOK OF MILK COMPOSITIONEDITED B Y

Robert G. JensenUniversity of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut

ACADEMIC PRESSA Horcourt Science ond Technology Cornpony

San Diego San Francisco New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo

This is an Academic Press reprint reproduced directly from the pages of a title for which type, plates, or film no longer exist. Although not up to the standards of the original, this method of reproduction makes it possible to provide copies of book which would otherwise be out of print.

This book is printed on acid-free paper. @Copyright O 1995 by ACADEMIC PRESS All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Academic PressA Harcourr Science and Technology Company

525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495, USA http://www.apnet.com

Academic Press24-28 Oval Road, London NWI 7DX, UK

http://www.hbuk.co.uWap/Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Handbook of milk composition / edited by Robert G. Jensen. cm. -- (Food science and technology international series) p. Includes index. ISBN 0-12-384430-4 (case) 1. Milk-Composition--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Breast milk-Composition--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Jensen, Robert G. 11. Series. TX556.M5H33 1995 613.2'6--dc20 95-2194 CIP

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA M) 01 02 03 04 05 IBT 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Contents

Contributors Foreword PrefaceCHAPTER I

v

viiix

IntroductionROBERT G. JENSEN

I. Purpose I II. General Description of MilksReferencesCHAPTER 2

z

3

The Structure of Milk: Implications for Sampling and StorageA. The Milk Lipid Globule MembraneTHOMAS W. KEENAN AND STUART PATON

5 I. lntracellular Origin and Growth of Milk Lipid Globules 7 II. Role of lntracellular Lipid Droplet Coat Material 8 Ill. Milk Lipid Globule Secretion 10 IV. Nature and Frequency of Cytoplasmic Crescents V. Size and Membrane Area Distribution of Milk Lipid Globules 16 VI. Nature of Milk Llipid Globule Membranes

14

Contents

VII. Reorganization of the Membrane during Storage and Processing 36 References 44B. Particulate Constituents in Human and Bovine MilksROBERT G. JENSEN,BERNARD BLANC, AND STUART PATTON

I Introduction . 50 II; Cells and Membrane Fragments Ill. Emulsion Parameters 56 IV. Casein Micelles 58 V. Summary 60 References 61

53

C. Sampling and Storage of Human MilkMARGARET C. NEVILLE

I Introduction . 63 63 II. Mechanisms of Milk Secretion and Ejection Ill. Methods for Obtaining a Representative Milk Sample IV. Sources of Change in Milk Composition during Storage 73 V. Recommendations for Storage of Milk Samples VI. Summary 76 References 77

68

71

D. Sampling and Storage of Bovine MilkROBERT G. JENSEN

I. Introduction II. Sampling 111. StorageReferences

79 79

8080

E. The Physical Properties of Human and Bovine MilksMARGARET C. NEVILLE AND ROBERT G. JENSEN

I. Introduction 81 II. Electrical Conductivity 81 Ill. Freezing Point 82 IV. Boiling Point 82 V. Osmolality or Osmotic Pressure VI. pH 83

Contents

VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII.

Specific Gravity 84 Surface Tension 84 Titratable Acidity 84 Specific Heat 85 Coefficient of Expansion Viscosity 85 References 85

85

CHAPTER 3

Determinants of Milk Volume and CompositionA. Lactogenesis in Women: A Cascade of Events Revealed by Milk CompositionMARGARET C. NEVILLE

I. Introduction 87 II. The Physiological Basis of Lactogenesis 88 Ill. The Composition of the Preparation Mammary SecretionIV. Implications of Changes in Milk Composition during Lactogenesis 92 V. Summary and Conclusions 96 References 97

89

B. Volume and Caloric Density of Human MilkMARGARET C. NEVILLE

I. Introduction 99 II. Methods for Measurement of Milk Volume 100 Ill. Milk Volumes in Exclusively Breast-Feeding Women IV. Breast Milk Volumes Transferred to Partially Breast-Fed Infants 108 V. Caloric Density of Human Milk 108 VI. Conclusions 110 References 111

106

C. Volume and Caloric Density of Bovine MilkROBERT G. JENSEN

I. Volume 114 II. Calorie DensityReferences114

114

D. Regional Variations in the Composition of Human MilkA N N PRENTICE

I. Summary References

115217

E. Effects of Gestational Stage at Delivery on Human Milk ComponentsSTEPHANIE A. ATKINSON

I. Introduction 222 224 I. Nitrogen Composition of Preterm Milk I Ill. Acid-Soluble Nitrogen Fraction of Preterm Milk IV. Macrominerals and Electrolytes 227 V. Trace Elements 227 VI. Vitamins 229 VII. Physiological Basis of Preterm Milk Composition VIII. Summary 234 References 234

226

229

F. Miscellaneous Factors Affecting Composition and Volume of Human and Bovine MilksROBERT G. JENSEN

I. Introduction II. Human Milk Ill. Bovine MilkReferencesCHAPTER 4

237 237 260 267

Carbohydrates in Milks: Analysis, Quantities, and SignificanceDAVID S. NEWBURG A N D SUZANNE H. NEUBAUER

I. Introduction 273 II. Analytical Measurement of Carbohydrates in Milk Ill. Human Milk Lactose 280 IV. Human Milk Glucose 288 V. Human Milk Galactose 289 VI. Human Milk Oligosaccharides 289 VII. Lactose in Nonhuman Milk 302 303 VIII. Other Carbohydrates in Nonhuman Milk

274

IX. Summary 336 X. Speculation on Functions of Lactose References 338CHAPTER 5

336

Nitrogenous Components of M l ikA. Human Milk ProteinsBO L ~ N N E R D AAND STEPHANIE ATKINSON L

I. Introduction 35 I II. Caseins 353 Ill. Whey Proteins 358References364

B. Nonprotein Nitrogen Fractions of Human MilkSTEPHANIE A. ATKINSON AND BO L~NNERDAL

I Acid-Soluble Nitrogen Fraction . 369 374 II. Components of Acid-Soluble Nitrogen Fraction 38 1 Ill. Factors Affecting Milk Acid-Soluble Nitrogen Composition IV. Quantitative Recovery of Components in the Acid-Soluble Fraction 382 of Milk V. Summary 383 References 385C. Enzymes in Human MilkMARGIT HAMOSH

I. Introduction 388 II. Milk Enzymes Active Mainly in the Mammary Gland 398 Ill. Milk Enzymes without Well-Defined FunctionIV. Milk Enzymes Important in Neonatal Development References 416D. Hormones and Growth Factors in Human MilkOTAKAR KOLDOVSK~ AND VLADIMIR STRBAK

388 402

I. Introduction 428 II. Explanation of DataReferences432

428

X

Contents

E. Nucleotides and Related Compounds in Human and Bovine MilksANGEL GIL AND RICARDO UAUY

I. Introduction 436 II. Analytical Methodology 439 Ill. Composition of Nucleotides and Related Compounds in Milk 456 IV. Significance of Dietary Nucleotides in Infant Nutrition V. Summary 460 References 461F. Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Bovine MilkHAROLD E. SWAISGOOD

I. Introduction 464 11. Protein Composition Ill. Amino Acid CompositionReferences467

464 465

G. Nonprotein Nitrogen Compounds in Bovine MilkBRENDA ALSTON-MILLS

I. Nitrogen Content of Milk II. Milk NPN 469 References 470

468

H. Enzymes Indigenous to Bovine MilkHAROLD E. SWAISGOOD

I. Introduction 472 II. Enzymes of Technological Significance References 476

475

I. Hormones and Growth Factors in Bovine MilkW. M. CAMPANA AND C. R BAUMRUCKER

I. Introduction 11. Hormones 111. Summary References

476 479

488489

Contents

CHAPTER 6

Milk LipidsA. Human Milk LipidsROBERT G. JENSEN.]OEL BITMAN. SUSAN E. CARLSON, SARAH C. COUCH, MARGIT HAMOSH, AND DAVID S. NEWBURG

I. Introduction 495 II. Collection, Preparation, and Storage of Samples 497 Ill. Determinations of Lipid Content 497 IV. Factors Affecting Total Lipid Content V. Lipid Classes 497 References 537

496

B. Bovine Milk LipidsROBERT G. JENSEN AND DAVID S. NEWBURG

I. Introduction 543 I. Collection, Preparation, and Storage of Samples I Ill. Determination of Lipid Content 543IV. Factors Affecting Total Lipid Content V. Lipid Classes 544 VI. Summary 572 References 573CHAPTER 7544

543

Minerals, Ions, and Trace Elements in MilkA. Ionic Interactions in MilkMARGARET C. NEVILLE, PEIFANG ZHANG, AND JONATHAN C. ALLEN

I. Introduction 577 II. Methodologies 578 Ill. Hydrogen Ion Equilibria in Milk

582

582 IV. Distribution of Monovalent Ions in Milk V. Distribution of Divalent Cations among the Structural Compartments of Milk 583 585 VI. Calcium and Zinc Binding to Casein

xii

Contents

VII. Divalent Cation Equilibria in the Aqueous Compartment of Milk 586 VIII. Summary and Conclusions 590 References 590

B. Major Minerals and Ionic Constitutents of Human and Bovine MilksSTEPHANIE ATKINSON, BRENDA ALSTON-MILLS, BO LONNERDAL, AND MARGARET C. NEVILLE

I. Introduction 593 II. Major Monovalent Ions: Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride Ill. Divalent lons: Calcium, Magnesium, Citrate, Phosphate,and Sulfate References600619

593

C. Microminerals in Human and Animal MilksCLARE E. CASEY, ANNE SMI