Hawthorne Effectppt

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    HAWTHORNE EFFECTHAWTHORNE EFFECT

    BY

    DIMELROY

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    DEFENITIONDEFENITION

    y The behavior of an individual or a group

    will change to meet the expectations of

    the observer if they are aware their

    behavior is being observed.

    y It is also termed as Short Lived Increase

    of Productivity.

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    How it was DevelopedHow it was Developed

    y The term was coined in 1950 by Henry A.

    Landsberger when analysing older

    experiments from 1924-1932 at the

    Hawthorne Works a Western Electricfactory outside Chicago.

    y The term gets its name from a factory

    called the Hawthorne Works.

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    EXPERIMENTSEXPERIMENTS

    yILLUMINATION

    EXPERIMENT

    yRELAY ASSEMBLYEXPERIMENTS

    yBANK WIRING

    ROOM

    EXPERIMENTS

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    ILLUMNIATION EXPERIMENTILLUMNIATION EXPERIMENT

    y The experiment was done with various

    group of workers

    y The hawthorne researchers began by

    examining the relationship between

    physical environment and productivity

    y First they manipulated the intensity of

    illumination upward and downward, thereis no change in the group output.

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    y The production does not varies though

    there is a vary in increase or decrease in

    illumination

    y Then they introduced a control group in

    that an experimental group was

    presented with varying intensity of

    illumination, while the control groupworked under a constant illumination

    intensity.

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    y The results were the same to the

    Hawthorne researchers

    y As the light level was increased in the

    experimental, the output rose for both

    the control and experimental groups , but

    to the surprise of the researchers, as the

    light level dropped in the experimentalgroup, productivity increased in both the

    groups.

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    y The production level decrease was

    observed in the experimental group only

    when the light intensity has been reduced

    to that of moonlight.

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    CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION

    y The Hawthorne researchers concluded

    that illumination intensity was only a

    minor influence among the many

    influences that affected the employeesproductivity, but they could not explain

    the behaviour they had witnessed.

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    RELAY ASSEMBLY EXPERIMENTSRELAY ASSEMBLY EXPERIMENTS

    y They choose two women's and four other

    workers to join the test group.

    y Together the women worked in a separate

    room over the course of five years (1927-1932) assembling telephone relays.

    y They appointed a supervisor.

    y

    Then the researchers spent five yearsmeasuring how different variables impacted

    the group's and individuals' productivity.

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    INTERVIEWING PROGRAMINTERVIEWING PROGRAM

    y The workers were interviewed in attempt

    to validate the Hawthorne Studies. The

    participants were asked about

    supervisory practices and employeemorale. The results proved that upward

    communication in an organization creates

    a positive attitude in the workenvironment. The workers feel pleased

    that their ideas are being heard.

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    BANK WIRING ROOMBANK WIRING ROOM

    EXPERIMENTSEXPERIMENTS

    y Fourteen men where put together on

    assembling telephone switching

    equipment.

    y The process was broken down into three

    tasks: wiring, soldering and inspection.

    y Introducing Incentives Program

    y They put Employees in a special room

    y Placed an observer full time in the room

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    RESULT(BANK WIRING)RESULT(BANK WIRING)

    y The productivity actually decreased

    because the workers became suspicious

    that their productivity may have been

    boosted to justify firing some of theworkers later on.

    y The Workers were afraid that the

    company would lower the base rate.y The existence of informal groups or

    "cliques" within the formal groups.

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    ContdContd

    y Cliques created certain norms

    y They used sarcasm, binging, ridicule to

    bring pressure to bear on people who

    deviate from norms. They could also

    arrange their work in such a way as to

    overwhelm an inspector, and then be

    forced to do nothing while waiting forhim.

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    ContdContd

    y They also adjusted their reports of how

    much was done so as to appear that the

    output was uniform. They were afraid of

    inviting any changes. This was not basedon any experience they had.

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    CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION

    y It was concluded that the social

    environment could have an equal if not a

    greater effect upon productivity than the

    physical environment.

    y The studies revealed the influence that

    informal work groups can have on the

    productivity of employees and on theirresponse to such factors as supervision

    and financial incentives.

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    CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION

    y When the first phase of experimentsbegin it was believed that every socialproblem was "ultimately individual." The

    results found that group rather thanindividual psychology was a key factor inthe production performance of theworkers.

    y It also pioneered the concept of goodcommunication between management andemployees.

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    Are the Findings Relevant todayAre the Findings Relevant today

    YES

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    MarketingMarketing

    y if XYZ Company conducts a taste test

    and tells the subjects that XYZ Company

    produced beverage No. 1, most

    respondents will say they prefer beverageNo. 1. Thus, it is not a true test. Similarly, if

    a test panel are told they are testing an

    appetite suppressant, they will begin toeat less.

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    Food and FitnessFood and Fitness

    y When individuals are made to feel special

    their physical and intellectual performance

    improves. Psychologists call this the

    Hawthorne effect. Successful coaches,fitness trainers, and instructors often use

    this effect by providing members of their

    group with as much support and sense ofimportance as possible.

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    Sports Science and MedicineSports Science and Medicine

    A general improvement in performance

    that occurs when persons receive special

    attention. Successful coaches often show

    considerable respect for this effect,providing members of their group with as

    much support and sense of importance as

    possible.

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    THANK YOU