Hong Kong Dy

Embed Size (px)

Text of Hong Kong Dy

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    1/42

    HONG KONG ARCH162 AL KENRICK DY

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    2/42

    Hong Kong: From fishing village to a world city

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    3/42

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    4/42

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    5/42

    Geographic Location

    Hong Kong is situated at the mouth of the Pearl River facingthe South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean, because of itslocation Hong Kong was endowed with the richestagricultural delta areas of China.

    and occasional typhoon. There is not much level landaround the harbor, but quite fortunately the inland area isshallow enough to permit reclamation to take place.

    Hong Kong is a resource poor area. It has no naturalresources on its own.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    6/42

    The territory is made up of :

    Hong Kong Island

    the Kowloon Peninsula

    Geographic Location

    Victoria harbor separates Hong Kong Island

    from Kowloon and beyond that, the NewTerritories that runs up to the boundary with

    Mainland China.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    7/42

    Harbor as the core of

    economic activity

    Hong Kong occupies a central position in

    South-east Asia

    .This made Hong Kong a viable transshipment

    (entrept port function) point for goods in Asia.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    8/42

    Brief History of Hong Kong

    Hong Kong was ceded to Britain

    under the Treaty of Nanking.

    The city of Hong Kong was just a

    collection of fishing villages when

    claimed b the British in 1842.

    Treaty of Nanking

    the Kowloon Peninsula was

    handed over in 1860

    During 1898, a 99-year lease onthe New Territories (north of

    Kowloon up to the Shenzhen

    River) and 235 outliers was

    granted.View of Hong Kong Harbor before the British colonization

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    9/42

    1 July 1997 -Under the principle of 'One

    Country, Two Systems', Hong Kong returned toChinese sovereignty as a Special

    Administrative Re ion of the Peo le's Re ublic

    Brief History of Hong Kong

    of China.

    allowed Hong Kong to enjoy a high degree of

    autonomy, retention of its capitalist system,

    independent judiciary and rule of law, free trade

    and freedom of speech

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    10/42

    HISTORY OF

    URBAN PLANNING IN

    HONG KONG

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    11/42

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    12/42

    The Formative Years

    The governments only plan was to regulate

    the sale of the land through minimumintervention.

    transshipment and trade center.

    characterized by overcrowding and squatters

    poor sanitary conditions which resulted tooutbreaks of bubonic plague

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    13/42

    Hong Kong survived at first because of its military

    function, it served as the vassal and militarycenter which provided security for headquarters

    of im ortant British merchant houses.

    The Formative Years

    Chartered Mercantile Bank and Hong Kong and

    Shanghai bank was established

    development of shipping industry(Jardine,

    Matheson and company-local shipping industry)

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    14/42

    The Beginning of Urban

    Planning

    In 1903 an ordinance was passed which set

    requirements for open spaces, restrictions on

    building styles, heights and renovations.

    building plans were subjected to buildingauthorities

    precursor of urban planning in the city.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    15/42

    Economic Boom

    1920s- heralded an economic boom in Hong

    Kong, it was recommended to have a futuredevelopment plan of the harbor

    , -

    town-planning scheme for the colony.

    resulted to Kowloon plan which laid out lots for

    private developments

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    16/42

    Housing Problems

    1930s-ovecrowding, lack of housing,

    relocation of the slums were the perennialproblems

    1935-A housin committee was set-u to

    oversee the permanent town planning andhousing.

    June 1939-Town planning ordinance was

    passed which became the guiding legislationfor urban planning.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    17/42

    Apartments and Housing

    units in Hong Kong

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    18/42

    Abercrombies Plan

    In 1947 renowned British urban planner Sir

    Patrick Abercrombie was tasked to prepare plansfor development in Kowloon and Victoria.

    Abercrombies plan included the following:

    industrial locations future reclamations

    cross-harbor tunnels

    communication lines and new towns provided the model for future developments in

    Hong Kong

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    19/42

    Sir Patrick Abercrombie

    Cross-Harbor tunnel

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    20/42

    1950s- town planning office was established

    within the Crown Lands and Survey Office An idea to develop a master plan was halted

    quickly outdated.

    rise of important manufacturing industries,

    economic reorientation, export oriented

    industrialization, laissez faire

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    21/42

    Laissez-faire

    In the past, planning in Hong Kong was ad hoc

    in nature, laissez faire emphasized theimportance of urban planning.

    redevelopment of main metropolitan area

    around the harbor.

    physical planning and its social and economiceffects were emphasized

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    22/42

    Economic Development of

    1960s

    1960s- Economic development(textile

    industries) which resulted to constructionboom became sensitive to physical planning

    .

    In 1962 the government was forced to move

    towards planning Hong Kong as a whole.

    resulted in the planning of Colony Outline Plan

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    23/42

    Hong Kong as a Major

    Financial Center

    GDP from 1970-1988 rose

    manufacturing and utilities(electricity, gas, and water)

    1970s- The Colony Outline Plan was completed in 1971 and wasapproved in 1972. It became the document on which thegovernment based its provision of facilities in suitable locations.

    tertiary economic factor includes commerce, finance, transportcommunications

    rise of Hong Kong as major financial center for Asian-pacific region

    Hong Kong became an established financial center(has active stockmarket)

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    24/42

    Bond center

    Bank of China

    International Financial Center

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    25/42

    Colony Outline Plan

    Part of the 3-tier system of government planning,

    two of which are: Outline zoning plan(land-use)

    De artmental develo ments lan la out of districts

    The Colony Outline Plan (Long term territorial

    development) consists of two parts namely:

    Development strategy for the next 20 years

    Guidelines for provision of infrastructural facilities

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    26/42

    Colony Outline Plan

    In 1974, the Colony Outline Plan was

    substantially revised to take into account thechanges in socio-economic conditions andgovernments development priorities. The

    revised plan was renamed as the Hong KongOutline Plan (HKOP) which consists of twoparts:

    Part I: relating to planning standards Part II: on development strategy.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    27/42

    Territorial Development

    Strategy

    1980s-Land Development policy

    establishment of TDS (Territorial DevelopmentStrategy)

    TDS aims to coordinate the urban development

    with transport provision Hong Kong modernized their age-old

    shipbuilding

    aircraft engineering industry has developed inhigh international reputation

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    28/42

    5 major divisions for the

    purpose of TDS

    The was divided into 5 sub-regions:

    Metropolitan Area( Hong Kong Island, KowloonPeninsula, New Kowloon, Tsuen Wan)

    -

    North-west New Territories

    South-east New Territories

    South-west New Territories

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    29/42

    Land Use and

    Transportation

    Commercial Land Use

    central district of Hong Kong( Tsim shat sui in the southern tip of the

    peninsula) Major banks headquarters ,stock exchange, tourist hotels,etc.

    Industrial land use

    Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun , Tai po, New territories

    sma an arge-sca e in ustria . S ip ui ing an s ip repairing

    Warehouse and storage use Kwun tong, Yau tong. These are ubiquitous anywhere in Hong Kong

    Residential

    most important and widespread

    high density living(comprised of private an public housing) Low density living is found outside the main urban area which had the

    view of the harbor.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    30/42

    Multi-modal Transportation

    System

    In the case of Hong Kong public transportation

    was influenced by the urban form Territories is highly knit, highly dense and high

    dependence on public transportation.

    Transport systems have been developed in

    line with the governments policy ofdecentralization.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    31/42

    MASS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    32/42

    Hong Kong Transportation Map

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    33/42

    Metroplan

    Metroplan represents the planners idea of

    focusing the development back toMetropolitan Area after the relocation of the

    .

    better organized, desirable and more

    efficient place to live and work

    It emphasized the importance of transportnetworks, crossings, and expressways

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    34/42

    Land use Plan as of 2000

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    35/42

    Contributing Factors:

    LOCATION

    Hong Kong's magnificent harbor has been one ofthe key to its economic development, it opened

    trade to other countries.

    It strengthened its position as transshipment andtrade center.

    The geographic location of Hong Kong assured its

    success in world trade.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    36/42

    Economic Activities

    The development strategy of Hong Kong is pragmaticand straightforward, it always promotes economic

    development based on the harbor and the port area.

    Contributing Factors:

    The colonial status brought stability and economictransformation.

    Multi-story buildings were deemed as the solution to

    the increasing demands for industrial space.

    One of their governments main role is to provide an

    efficient infrastructure.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    37/42

    Contributing Factors:

    HIGH POPULATION DENSITY

    A policy of population decentralization wasvehemently pursued by the government.

    Population redistribution was carried out through

    public housing programs. Population was spread out to the New territories

    More and more people move out of the mainurban areas

    Segregation between high income and low incomegroups

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    38/42

    GOVERNMENT POLICIES

    Hong Kong was maintained as a free port devotedto free trade, low taxation and free movement of

    mone skill and technolo

    Contributing Factors:

    Laissez-faire policy(positive non-intervensionism): Planning served the needs of

    the peoples economic activities rather than

    restrict it)

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    39/42

    Conclusion

    The integration of all planning functions and activities wasstimulated by the planning needs of Port development. This could

    be attributed to the economic activities of the people. Hong Kong has gradually transformed from a uni-centered to multi-

    centered development; however, the mini-centers cannot competewith the main center.

    e eve opment o new towns roug t a out a sperse mu t -

    centered urban form linked by an efficient road and rail network The development echoes the concepts of both centripetal and

    centrifugal forces taking place at the same time.

    The public housing program later on proved not very effectivebecause the development of these public housing has no provisionof transportation, educational, and service facilities.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    40/42

    END

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    41/42

    references

    Dimitriou, Harry and Cook, Alison. Land-use/Transport Planning

    in Hong Kong: The End of an Era. Vermont: Ashgate Publishing,

    1998. Print.

    Lo, C.P. Hong Kong. London: Belhaven Press, 1992. Print.

  • 8/8/2019 Hong Kong Dy

    42/42

    Photo sources

    http://www.bugbog.com

    http://www.e-architect.co.uk

    http://www.baxleystamps.comhttp://www.piaoshiguang.com

    http://www.designinghongkong.com

    http://travel.intercontinental.com

    . . .

    http://www.westernharbourtunnel.comhttp://en.yuankuang.com

    http://www.istockphoto.com

    http://www.shutterstock.com

    http://crunkish.com

    http://www.flickr.comhttp://biz.thestar.com

    http://www.china-tour.cn/HongKong

    http://www.hansens-hikes.com