Icomos Iscarsah Recommendations

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Text of Icomos Iscarsah Recommendations

ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR ANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE ANALYSIS, CONSERVATION AND STRUCTURAL RESTORATION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGEThe International Scientific Committee for the Analysis and Restoration of Structures of Architectural Heritage was formed in 1996 under the chairmanship of Giorgio Croci. Its Recommendations comprise two parts: the Principles and the Guidelines. Their texts were agreed at the 2001 Paris meeting and the Principles, adopted at the ICOMOS General Assembly in Zimbabwe, in October 2003, have been published in English, French and Spanish as an ICOMOS charter. However the Recommendations, and particularly the Guidelines, have been regarded as a developing document and subsequent revisions of the text have been approved in the meetings held by the committee in Paris, in 2003, and in Barcelona, in 2005. In this last occasion, the review of the text benefited particularly from a compilation of comments, which resulted from the 2004 Athens meeting. This edited English version of the document is the result of comments made and suggested at the 2005 Barcelona meeting and is dated accordingly. While this constitutes the present official version of the Recommendations it is

clear that there will be future developments and thus future versions of the Recommendations. Their dating, and the inclusion of this brief history, will clarify the status of each.

The membership list comprises those who are members of the committee at the date of publication of the document.

1 Nov. 2005

ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR ANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Members of the Committee June 2005

Officers ROCA, Pere, (President), YEOMANS, David, (Secretary) MILTIADOU, Androniki, (Treasurer) ARUN, Gorun, EMMETT, Patricia, LOOK, David, LOURENCO, Paulo, PITTAS, Michael, SCHROETER, Heinrich, Voting members BJRBERG, Svein, BORG, Claude, DRDACKY, Milos, ELLIOTT. Peter, ESPIE, James, FONTAINE, Lyne, GAVRILOVIC, Predrag, HEJAZI, Mehrdad, JASIENKO, Jerzy, NAEEM, Anila, SEGARRA LAGUNES, Maria Margarita, SOFRONIE, Ramiro, SORIA, Judith, URLAND, Andrea, WIRTZ, Patrick, HANAZATO, Toshikazu, HALLEUX, Pierre, MODENA, Claudio Corresponding membersBALDERSTONE, Susan, Australia

Spain UK, Greece Turkey South Africa USA Portugal Cyprus Germany

Norway Malta Czech Republic UK New Zealand Canada Macedonia Iran Poland Pakistan Mexico Romania Peru Slovakia Luxemburg Japan Belgium Italy

BINDA, Luigia, DAYALA, Dina FUJITA, Fernando, CHARKIOLAKIS, Nikolas, CROCI, Prof. Giorgio (Former president) FERWERDA, Wilfred,

Italy U.K. Peru Greece Italy Canada2 Nov. 2005

ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR ANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

GOLDBERG, Eli, GREEN, Melvyn, HIDAKA, Kenichiro, HURTADO, Pedro, KELLEY, Stephen, KNOLL, Eduard, MACCHI, Giorgio, MANIERI ELIA, Giovani, PENTINMIKKO, Juhani, SCHAFFER, Yaacov, SCHMIDT, Dr Ing. Wolf, SCHMUCKLE, Christiane, SILVA Vitor, SWAILES, Thomas TAMPONE, Gennaro VAN BALEN, Koenraad (Former secretary) WIJERATNE, Pali,

Israel USA Japan Peru USA Germany Italy Italy Finland Israel Germany France Portugal U.K. Italy Belgium, Sri Lanka

3 Nov. 2005

ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR ANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE ANALYSIS, CONSERVATION AND STRUCTURAL RESTORATION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Contents PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT Part I PRINCIPLES 1 2 3 General criteria Research and diagnosis Remedial measures and controls

Part II GUIDELINES 1 2 General criteria Acquisition of data: Information and Investigation 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Generally Historical and architectural investigations Investigation of the structure Field research and laboratory testing Monitoring

3

Structural behaviour 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 General aspects The structural scheme and damage Material characteristics and decay processes Actions on the structure and the materials

4

Diagnosis and safety evaluation 4.1 4.2 4.3 General aspects Identification of the causes (diagnosis) Safety evaluation

4.3.1 The problem of safety evaluation 4.3.2 Historical analysis4 Nov. 2005

ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR ANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

4.3.3 Qualitative analysis 4.3.4 The quantitative analytical approach

4.3.5 The experimental approach 4.4 4.5 Judgement on safety Decisions on intervention

5Decisions on interventions The Explanatory Report

Annex Structural damage, material decay and remedial measures 1 2 3 4 5 General aspects Masonry Timber Iron and steel Reinforced concrete

5 Nov. 2005

ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR ANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE ANALYSIS, CONSERVATION AND STRUCTURAL RESTORATION OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT Structures of architectural heritage, by their very nature and history (material and assembly), present a number of challenges in diagnosis and restoration that limit the application of modern legal codes and building standards. Recommendations are desirable and necessary to ensure both rational methods of analysis and repair methods appropriate to the cultural context. These Recommendations are intended to be useful to all those involved in conservation and restoration problems, but cannot in any way replace specific knowledge acquired from cultural and scientific texts. The Recommendations are in two sections: Principles, where the basic concepts of conservation are presented, and Guidelines, where the rules and methodology that a designer and others should follow are discussed. Only the Principles have the status of an approved/ratified ICOMOS document.

6 Nov. 2005

ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR ANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Part I PRINCIPLES 1 General criteria

1.1Conservation, reinforcement and restoration of architectural heritage requires a multi-disciplinary approach. 1.2 The value and authenticity of architectural heritage cannot be assessed by fixed criteria because the respect due to each culture requires that its physical heritage be considered within the cultural context to which it belongs. 1.3 The value of each historic building is not only in the appearance of individual elements, but also in the integrity of all its components as a unique product of the specific building technology of its time and place. Thus the removal of the inner structures retaining only a faade does not satisfy conservation criteria. 1.4 Potential change of use must take into account all the conservation and safety requirements. 1.5 Any intervention to an historic structure must be considered within the context of the restoration and conservation of the whole building. 1.6 The peculiarity of heritage structures, with their complex history, requires the organisation of studies and analysis in steps that are similar to those used in medicine. Anamnesis, diagnosis, therapy and controls, corresponding respectively to the condition survey, identification of the causes of damage and decay, choice of the remedial measures and control of the efficiency of the interventions. To be both cost effective and ensure minimum impact on the architectural heritage it is often appropriate to repeat these steps in an iterative process. 1.7 No action should be undertaken without ascertaining the likely benefit and harm to the architectural heritage. Where urgent safeguard measures are necessary to avoid imminent collapse they should avoid or minimise permanent alteration to the fabric.

2

Research and diagnosis

2.1 Usually a multidisciplinary team, chosen in relation to the type and scale of the problem, should work together from the beginning i.e. from the initial survey of the site and the preparation of the investigation programme.7 Nov. 2005

ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR ANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

2.2 Usually we need first to analyse easily available data and information, only then if necessary drawing up a more comprehensive plan of activities appropriate to the structural problem. 2.3 A full understanding of the structural behaviour and material characteristics is essential for any conservation and restoration project, which must encompass the original state of the structure and the construction methods used, subsequent changes that have occurred to the structure, and finally, its present state. 2.4 Archaeological sites present specific problems because structures have to be stabilised during excavation when knowledge is not yet complete. The structural responses to a rediscovered building may be completely different from those to an exposed building. Urgent measure, required to stabilise the structure as it is being excavated, must respect the concept form and use of the complete building. 2.5 Diagnosis is based on historical information and qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative approach is based on direct observation of structural damage and material decay as well as historical and archaeological research, while the quantitative approach requires material and structural tests, monitoring and structural analysis. 2.6 Before making a decision on structural intervention it is indispensable to determine first the causes of damage and decay, and then to evaluate the present level of structural safety. 2.7 The safety evaluation, which follows the diagnosis, is where the decision for possible intervention is determined, and needs to reconcile qualitative with quan