Ky Thuat Trong Hoa Hong TAI LIEU

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    Kthut trng hoa hng

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    MC LCI. C IM THC VT HC ................................................................................................................. 2

    II. YU CU IU KIN NGOI CNH ................................................................................................. 2III. CC GING TRNG HIN NAY ........................................................................................................ 3

    IV. CC PHNG PHP NHN GING HOA HNG ........................................................................... 3

    V. KTHUT TRNG V CHM SC ................................................................................................ 11

    VI. Thu hoch v bo qun hoa .................................................................................................................. 13

    1. X l cn thu hoch .......................................................................................................................... 13

    2. Thu hi hoa ........................................................................................................................................ 13

    3. X l sau ct ...................................................................................................................................... 13

    Phn loi v ng gi hoa hng .............................................................................................................. 13VII. PHNG TRSU BNH ................................................................................................................. 14

    VIII. TRNG HOA HNG TRONG CHU ............................................................................................. 15

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    KTHUT TRNG HOA HNG

    Cy hoa Hng c xut x t Trung Quc, n , sau mi du nhp qua HLan, Php, c, Bungari, Chu u. Hoa hng du nhp vo Vit Nam t Chu u

    v t Trung Quc.Hoa Hng c coi l biu tng ca tnh yu v hnh phc, lng chung thuv s kht khao vn ti ci p. Vi nhiu u im: mu sc a dng, cnh hoadi, l xanh, mi thm nh, c hoa quanh nm, hoa hng c th dng lm hoa cm

    bnh, cm l, trng chu, trng bn bonsai, trng trang tr trc v xung quanhnh.

    I. C IM THC VT HC

    R:RHng thuc loi rchm, n ngang rng, khi brln pht sinh nhiu

    rph.Thn: Thuc loi nhm cy thn g, thn bi thp, c nhiu cnh v gai cong,c ging nhiu gai, c ging t gai.

    L: L kp lng chim mc cch, xung quanh l cht c nhiu rng ca nh, tuging m l c mu sc xanh m hay xanh nht, rng ca nng hay su hay c hnhdng l khc.

    Hoa: C nhiu mu sc v kch ckhc nhau, mt sging c mi thm nh,i hoa c mu xanh.

    Qu: Quhnh tri xoan, trong cha rt nhiu ht, thuc loi qunang.

    II. YU CU IU KIN NGOI CNH

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    1. nh sngnh sng l nhn tquan trng nht i vi ssinh trng v ra hoa ca hoa

    hng. nh sng khng nhng c tc ng trc tip n cy m cn lm thay imt lot cc nhn tngoi cnh khc nhnhit , thot hi nc

    2. Nhit Nhit ti thch cho hoa hng tutheo ging, nhn chung l t23-250C. Nhitm quan trng hn nhit ngy, a scc ging thch hp vi nhit ml 160C. Thp hn nhit ny, cy sinh trng chm, sn lng thp nhng chtlng hoa cao v ngc li.3. m

    m phthuc vo nhit , nh sng v chnc. m thch hp chocy hoa hng t7080%.4. t ai

    t thch hp cho Hng l t tht, hoc t tht nh, nn chn nhng ni t

    cao khng bngp ng, t bng phng, ti xp thng thong, c pH = 6,0 6,5, c y nh sng.

    III. CC GING TRNG HIN NAY

    Hoa Hng c hn 350 loi c phn bkhp cc bn cu. Hin nay VitNam ang trng khong 50 chng loi ging Hng chnh theo mu sc c thphnchng thnh cc nhm ging sau:

    1- Nhm ging : thm, nhung, hng ngc, c2- Nhm ging Phn Hng: mu hoa o, mu thm, mu qu3- Nhm ging vng: vng nht, vng u, vng da cam4- Nhm ging hng sen: cnh sen, hng nht5- Nhm ging trng: trng trong, trng sa, trng ng6- Nhm hnhiu mu pha trn: l mu sc cnh hoa khng u, mu hn hp

    v rt nhiu mu trung gian.Hin nay ang c mt sging hng rt c thtrng a chung v rt ph

    hp vi iu kin min Bc Vit Nam l cc ging: Php, vng yn H Lan,phn Trung Quc, trng M, xc pho Trung Quc v cc ging VR2; VR4;VR6; VR9; VR10.

    IV. CC PHNG PHP NHN GING HOA HNG

    C th nhn ging hoa hng bng phng php gim cnh, ghp, lai hu tnh,chn ging t bin d chi hoc t cy nui cy m.

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    1. Nhn ging bng phng php gim cnh

    a. Thi v nhn ging:

    Nhn ging hng bng cnh gim c th p dng mi thi v trong nm (viiu kin m bo ng theo qui trnh nhn ging), nhng tt nht vn l 2 thiv chnh

    - V xun (t thng 2-4)

    - V thu (t thng 8- 10)

    2 thi v ny cy ging nhanh ra r v cho t l sng cao nht, ng thi khitrng ra sn xut t l cy cht cng thp nht.

    b. Chun b nh gim:

    Nh gim hng nn thit k theo kiu nh knh, nh li, dng nh ny va ctc dng che chn (ma, nng, cch li su bnh), va c iu kin p dngcng ngh mang tnh cht cng nghip cao (h thng phun ti, hthng iu khinnh sng...) Trong iu kin cha c kh nng lm cc kiu nh ny, th c th thitk theo kiu nh gim n gin, nhng l nh c mi che v phi m bo c yucu v nh sng. C th s dng nilng hoc tm nha PE lm mi.

    c. Chun b gi th gim:Yu cu ca gi th gim hng l phi lm bng vt liu va m bo s ti

    xp, c kh nng thot nc tt, ng thi c tnh gi m cao. Cc nghin cu cachng ti cho thy loi gi th tt nht cho vic nhn ging hng iu Vit naml: 2/3 tru hun + 1/3 t i, nu khng c t i c th thay th bng t ph sahoc ct, ct vng.

    Tt c cc loi gi th trn phi c sng lc loi b nhng tp cht, phi khv phi c kh trng bng VibenC 1%, trc khi a vo gim, Gi th sau khi x

    l em ng vo khay nha chuyn dng dng cho hng gim.

    d. Chn, ct cnh gim:

    Vn hng dng ct cnh cn c ch chm sc ring, ngoi ch bnthng thng cn bn thm 50 kg ur, 70 kg kali cho 1ha.

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    Dng loi cnh bnh tkhng qu gi hoc qu non, tt nht l chn loi cnhang mang hoa giai on s dng, cnh c cc mt bng ht go, khng nn lynhng cnh c mt m hoc mt bt lc. Chiu di ca on cnh dng gimt 8-10 cm, trn c t 2 - 4 mt. Khi ct cnh, ct vt khong 30O. Dng dao

    (ko) sc ct, khng vt ct b dp nt. Mi on cnh gim gi li t 1 - 2 lcht cung l pha trn.

    e. X l thuc:

    Hng l loi cy thn g tng i kh ra r khi gim, v vy mun kch thchcnh gim ra r nhanh ta dng mt trong 2 loi thuc iu tit sinh trng l IAAv NAA thng phm nng t 500 700ppm, sau khi cnh ct xong em nhngnhanh vo dung dch pha sn trong khong thi gian t 3 - 5 giy ri cm vogi th.

    S dng cn lm dungmi pha thuc (v cn va c tc dng ho tan thuc,va c tc dng dit khun vt ct trc khi gim).

    f. Thao tc gim cnh.

    Dng tay cm cnh thng ng, ngay ngn, cm su 1,5 - 2 cm. Cm vo chnhgia cc l trong khay c chun b sn (khay ny c thit k chuyn dng chohng gim)

    g. K thut phun, ti nc

    Phi lun lun m bo m cho cy, iu kin m khng kh v m gith trong 3 ngy sau gim t mc 95% l tt nht. Sau 3 ngy gim c th gim m gi th xung 8590%.

    Trong iu kin cha p dng c cng ngh cao to m bng my tnh tng (ch c mt s c s ln mi c iu kin p dng) th c th p dng hthng phun ti bng ch hn gi theo thi gian c Rle t ngt, thi gian hnny tu thuc vo iu kin ngoi cnh. Vi iu kin ma kh t ch phun

    l 50 giy, khong cch gia cc ln phun t 15 - 20 pht (ban ngy), 60 - 90 pht(ban m). Vi iu kin ma m t ch phun l 30 giy, khong cnh ccln phun t 30 - 40 pht (ban ngy), 120 - 180 pht (ban m). Hoc nu khng cth s dng theo phng php th cng bng bnh, phun nh ln ton b b mtlung gim, ch phun ny cng lm theo nhch hn gi.

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    Trong giai on u khi cnh cha xut hin r (khong 10-15 ngy) th cngvic phun nc phi i hi rt cht ch . Sau khi hnh thnh r bt nh, giai onny r bt u c kh nng ht nc t gi th th m gi th lun phi c m

    bo mc 80 85%.

    h. Chm sc cnh gim

    Phi thng xuyn nht b nhng cnh l a v nhng cnh l ny l mi trngtruyn nhim bnh.

    Sau khi gim 5 - 10 ngy cn phun ln cnh gim mt s loi thuc kch thchsinh trng v phn bn qua l, 10 ngy sau phun li mt ln, (mi la gim phunkhong 2 ln). Cc loi ch phm thng s dng cho cy hng gim l Atonik1,8% DD 10 ml/bnh 8 lt, phn bn l thin nng.

    Trong thi gian gim phi theo di su bnh trn cnh gim, c th l tn d su bnh t cy m hoc c th l su bnh hi mi xut hin. Mt s loi su bnhhi chnh v cch phng tr trn cy hng gim nhsau:

    - Nhn : S dng Pegasus 500 SC 7-10ml/bnh 8lt hoc Ortus 5SC 10 -12ml/bnh 8lt.

    - Rp: S dng Supaside 40ND nng 0,15%; 1 -1,5 lt/ha, Supathion10ml/bnh 8lt.

    - Bnh phn trng: S dng Score 250ND nng 8 - 10 ml/bnh 8 lt, liulng 0,2 - 0,3 lt/ha, Anvil 5SC, nng 6 - 8 ml/bnh 8 lt nuc; liu lng 1lt/ha.

    - Bnh m en: S dng Daconil 500SC 25ml/bnh 8 lt, ng xyclorua 30BTN 70 gam/bnh 8lt.

    - Bnh g st: S dng Daconil 500SC 25ml/bnh 8 lt

    i. Bng cy i trng

    Sau thi gian gim t 25 - 35 ngy, (thi gian ny ph thuc v thi v gim,ging cy gim), cy ra r th c th mang i trng ngoi rung sn xut. Cyging t tiu chun mang trng l cy c r ra u xung quanh, chiu di r t t3 - 4 cm, cn gi nguyn l, mm bt t 2 - 4 cm khng c vt su bnh. Khi vnchuyn cy i trng nn c khay hoc bu ni lng, lc trng nh nhnh nng bu

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    ly cy ra khi khay hoc bu nilng sao cho cn gi nguyn bu (bao gm c rv gi th) t cy xung v trng.

    2. Bn cch ghp hoa hng qu

    i vi nhng ging hng a phng, hng di, hng rng hay hng dy leoch nn p dng phng php nhn ging bng gim cnh. Cn i vi nhngging hng "kh tnh" nh hng lai, hng nhung ta khng nn gim cnh nhhng nhung rt kh to r do lng tinh bt trong cy thp, khng cho nhu cuti sinh cy, khi lng Enzym v Cytokinin ni sinh thp nn ch to c m som khng phn ha r.

    Chit cnh v ghp cnh thng c p dng cho ging hng lai, hng nhungv nhng ging hng qu. Cy hng chit thng mc nhanh hn hng ghp,

    nhng hoa li khng p v khng bn bng cy hng ghp. Hn na, phngphp ghp c