Launching the 21st Century Learner: Exploring the ...web02. ?· Launching the 21st Century Learner:…

  • Published on
    25-Aug-2018

  • View
    214

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li><p>Launching the 21st Century Learner: Exploring the Connections of a Coffee Shop Style </p><p>Classroom and Affective Learning on the Young Adolescent Student </p><p>A Thesis </p><p>Presented to the Faculty in Communication and Leadership Studies </p><p>School of Professional Studies </p><p>Gonzaga University </p><p>Under the Supervision of Dr. John S. Caputo </p><p>Under the Mentorship of Dr. Elizabeth Davis </p><p>In Partial Fulfillment </p><p>Of the Requirements for the Degree </p><p>Master of Arts in Communication and Leadership Studies </p><p>By </p><p>Wendy Tollefsen </p><p>December 2016 </p></li><li><p>We the undersigned, certify that we read this thesis and approve it as adequate in scope and </p><p>quality for the degree Master of Arts. </p><p>Gonzaga University </p><p>MA Program in Communication and Leadership Studies </p></li><li><p>iii </p><p>ABSTRACT </p><p>This study explored the connections of how the physical classroom design and layout of </p><p>an instructional environment influenced the affective learning opportunities and affinity seeking </p><p>opportunities for the 21st century young adolescent learner. Two Language Art classrooms, one </p><p>offering a traditional layout, desks arranged in a modified horseshoe, and a non-traditional coffee </p><p>shop style design classroom consisting of couches, flexible seating and bean bag chairs were </p><p>compared using a voluntary, self-administered survey. Teacher One, based in the traditional </p><p>classroom received n=139 responses, and Teacher Two in the coffee shop style classroom </p><p>received n=126 responses. The combined responses represented the 7th grade student body class </p><p>attending a small, public middle school in Northern Arizona. A descriptive analysis interpreted </p><p>the data concluding that certain trends occurred in clusters. Based on the survey results, the role </p><p>of instructional communication, expansion of the instructional space construct, affective domain </p><p>learning and affinity seeking relationships deepens insight into the interpersonal relationships </p><p>within the educational setting and young adolescent learning outcomes. </p><p>Keywords: affective learning, coffee shop style classroom, instructional proxemics </p></li><li><p>iv </p><p>ACKNOWLEDGMENTS </p><p>I would like to acknowledge the following individuals for their combined support, </p><p>guidance and patience, Dr. S. Caputo for his understanding, and clarity throughout the entire </p><p>writing and submission process, to Dr. Elizabeth Davis, my mentor professor, who without her </p><p>willingness to read several versions of each chapter I would not have made it to the next level, to </p><p>my little sister Wanda Lou, who never left a doubt in my mind that I would finish with a smile of </p><p>confidence, to my beautiful children, Brit Elisabeth &amp; Sean Aaron who bring joy beyond </p><p>compare to my life, to TAC an amazing woman who understands how to format Word 2016 </p><p>better than I ever could and to my husband, Arthur Ray, who stood by me throughout each late </p><p>night, each revision and each success. Thank you all. </p></li><li><p>v </p><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS </p><p>TITLE PAGE ................................................................................................................................... i </p><p>SIGNATURE PAGE ...................................................................................................................... ii </p><p>ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... iii </p><p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................... iv </p><p>LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ vii </p><p>LIST OF IMAGES ....................................................................................................................... viii </p><p>CHAPTER </p><p>I. INTRODUCTION Page </p><p>Introduction .......................................................................................................................1 </p><p>Importance of the Study ....................................................................................................1 </p><p>Statement of the Problem ..................................................................................................2 </p><p>Definitions of Terms Used ................................................................................................3 </p><p>Organization of Remaining Chapters ................................................................................3 </p><p>II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE </p><p>Philosophical Assumptions ...............................................................................................4 </p><p>Theoretical Basis ...............................................................................................................5 </p><p>The Literature....................................................................................................................8 </p><p>Rationale .........................................................................................................................12 </p><p>Research Questions .........................................................................................................13 </p><p>III. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY </p><p>The Scope of the Study ...................................................................................................14 </p><p>Methodology of the Study...............................................................................................14 </p><p>Data Analysis ..................................................................................................................16 </p><p>Validity ...........................................................................................................................16 </p><p>Reliability ........................................................................................................................16 </p><p>Ethical Considerations ....................................................................................................17 </p></li><li><p>vi </p><p>(Table of Contents Cont.) </p><p>IV. THE STUDY Page </p><p>Introduction .....................................................................................................................18 </p><p>Results of the Study ........................................................................................................18 </p><p>Part One ..........................................................................................................................19 </p><p>Part Two ..........................................................................................................................22 </p><p>Discussion .......................................................................................................................23 </p><p>V. SUMMARIES AND CONCLUSIONS </p><p>Limitations of the Study ..................................................................................................25 </p><p>Further Recommendations ..............................................................................................26 </p><p>Conclusions .....................................................................................................................27 </p><p>REFERENCES ..............................................................................................................................29 </p><p>APPENDICIES ..............................................................................................................................32 </p><p>Appendix A-Survey Questions ..........................................................................................32 </p><p>Appendix B-Teacher Ones Classroom .............................................................................33 </p><p>Appendix C-Teacher Twos Classroom .............................................................................35 </p><p>Appendix D-Survey Results...............................................................................................37 </p></li><li><p>vii </p><p>LIST OF TABLES </p><p>Table Page </p><p>1.a Data collected from self-survey measuring the affective learning domain ..................................................................................................20 </p><p>1.b Data collected from the self-survey measuring affinity seeking opportunities ..........................................................................................22 </p></li><li><p>viii </p><p>LIST OF IMAGES </p><p>Images Page </p><p>1.a Teacher One traditional classroom modified horseshoe .............................................................................................33 </p><p>1.b Teacher One traditional classroom modified horseshoe .............................................................................................33 </p><p>1.c Teacher One traditional classroom modified horseshoe .............................................................................................34 </p><p>1.d Teacher One traditional classroom modified horseshoe .............................................................................................34 </p><p>2.a Teacher Two non-traditional classroom coffee shop style .................................................................................................35 </p><p>2.b Teacher Two non-traditional classroom coffee shop style .................................................................................................35 </p><p>2.c Teacher Two non-traditional classroom coffee shop style .................................................................................................36 </p><p>2.d Teacher Two non-traditional classroom coffee shop style ................................................................................................ .36 </p></li><li><p>LAUNCHING THE LEARNER </p><p>1 </p><p>CHAPTER I </p><p>Introduction </p><p>The successful maneuvering through the middle school years for the young adolescent </p><p>learner depends are resilience, relationships and responsiveness. Family support, peer </p><p>acceptance and self-esteem dominate the conversation, however technology and the fluidity of </p><p>information create a new set of stressors during a time of physical, emotional and intellectual </p><p>growth (Eccles, Midgley, Wigfield, Buchanan, Reuman, Flanagan &amp; Iver, 1993: Martin &amp; </p><p>Dowson, 2009). Navigating the waters of a new educational environment, deciphering the </p><p>teaching styles of new instructors and new classrooms has resulted in a significant dip in the </p><p>young learners motivation and an increase in negative attitudes toward the educational </p><p>experience (Anderman &amp; Maehr, 1994). </p><p>Importance of the study </p><p>The role of communication plays an integral part of the students learning narrative. </p><p>Instructional communication offers educators a vantage point, a lens into which the teacher can </p><p>evaluate the importance and create quality learning experiences through the manipulation of the </p><p>five instructional communication constructs; teachers roles, students, learning outcomes, teacher </p><p>behavior/efficacy, and the sixth construct also recognized as part of instructional communication, </p><p>and the focus of this study, the instructional environment (McCroskey, Valencic &amp; Richmond, </p><p>2004). </p><p>As the young adolescent learner transitions into the larger and complex instructional </p><p>environment, new strategies for determining success within the classroom continue to dominate </p><p>the learning paradigm, however understanding the new challenges facing the 21st century middle </p></li><li><p>LAUNCHING THE LEARNER </p><p>2 </p><p>school student such as, peer acceptance, self -perception and social adaptation remains under </p><p>researched and critical for educational success (Feldlaufer, Midgley &amp; Eccles, 1988). This leads </p><p>the conversation to include how the communication environment, technology and learning </p><p>outcomes will adapt to accommodate a new 21st century pedagogy designed to reveal the </p><p>importance of the space and instructional environment within the instructional communication </p><p>paradigm. A new focus examining the impact of technology, collaboration, learning spaces and </p><p>diverse communication styles within the educational venue (Punie, 2007; Sorensen &amp; </p><p>Christophel, 2006) will direct the scholarship of this study. </p><p>Statement of the Problem </p><p>Interested researchers within the fields of education and communication continue to </p><p>launch vigorous hypotheses investigating the links between learning spaces, motivation and </p><p>achievement goals however, most research studies conducted target the undergraduate </p><p>population (Dittoe, 2002; Harvey &amp; Kenyon, 2013; McArthur, 2015; Morrone, Ouimet, Siering </p><p>&amp; Arthur, 2014). One study conducted in Germany did examine the learning spaces of 4th </p><p>graders and their question and asking techniques based on seating arrangement (Marx, Fuhrer &amp; </p><p>Hartig, 2002). While the findings of younger children evaluate communication strategies using </p><p>questioning techniques, the larger and untapped population of young adolescents remains a target </p><p>of interest and investigation. </p><p>Previous studies have focused on the five constructs of instructional communication and </p><p>the importance of best practices in educational communication, while the instructional </p><p>environments high variance in error has been deemed difficult to measure (Mcarthur, 2015), </p><p>therefore discouraging a modern framework to explore how the middle school learner </p><p>experiences communication strategies within the classroom based on the instructional </p></li><li><p>LAUNCHING THE LEARNER </p><p>3 </p><p>environment paradigm. </p><p>Discovering the possibilities of student satisfaction, teacher/student interpersonal </p><p>relationship building and affective learning based on the connections between the instructional </p><p>environment and the young adolescent learner will direct the scholarship of this study. </p><p>Definition of Terms Used </p><p>The Affective Domain- contributes to the students overall impression either in a positive </p><p>or negative light toward both the instructor and the subject (Christophel, 1990). </p><p>Coffee Shop Style Classroom- a classroom that shares caf-style characteristics. The </p><p>classroom includes, couches, a high bistro table, an abundance of natural light, brightly colored </p><p>walls, and bean bag chairs (Morrone, Ouiment, Siering &amp; Arthur, 2014). </p><p>Instructional Proxemics- explores the use of space, and the physical design of the </p><p>classroom, how the independent variable of the instructional environment impacts the affective, </p><p>cognitive and behavioral domains while applying instructional communication (Mcarthur, 2008). </p><p>Organization of the Remaining Chapters </p><p>The remaining chapters explore the process of this study which include in Chapter II the </p><p>philosophical assumptions, theoretical basis, an exemplary literature review, the rationale for the </p><p>study and the research questions, followed by Chapter IIIs outline of both the scope and </p><p>methodology of the study, the data analysis, validity and reliability of the collection process and </p><p>the ethical considerations for the study. Chapter IV introduces the results of the study and offers </p><p>a discussion of the findings, concluding with Chapter Vs examination of the study through </p><p>summaries and conclusions, limitations of the study, further recommendations and the </p><p>conclusion. </p></li><li><p>LAUNCHING THE LEARNER </p><p>4 </p><p>CHAPTER II </p><p>Review of the Literature </p><p>Philosophical Assumptions </p><p>The process of interper...</p></li></ul>