Matthew Service Anthropogenic Pressures Anthropogenic Pressures

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  • Matthew ServiceAnthropogenic Pressures

  • Principal PressuresPhysical disturbance from direct impacts and resulting from morphological changesContaminants; Heavy metals and OrganicNutrients

    Stresses on the environment in form of direct pressures such a emmissions, riverine & direct inputs

  • Catchment Area

    (km2)

    Length

    (km)

    Maximum

    Width

    (km)

    Surface

    Area LW (km2)

    Surface

    Area HW (km2)

    Max.

    Depth

    (m)

    Volume

    (106 m3)

    Coastline

    (km)

    771.5

    30.0

    8.0

    106.2

    182.8

    66.0

    1 251.5

    240.0

    Catchment

    Area

    Urban-Industrial

    Industrial

    Arable

    Grass

    Rough grazing

    Forest

    Other land

    km2

    % of area

    Strangford

    588

    5.2

    8.0

    84.2

    0.1

    1.8

    0.7

  • Residual near surface circulationPotential energy anomaly (J m3) and drifter tracks1. Introduction

  • Time line1857 Dickie reports presence of M modiolus in Lough:oysters in central areacf 1900 Oyster fishery declines: cf 1930 Spartina introduced;Boyd (1969) describes plankton and water quality;Jenkinson(1974) Describes hydrodynamics1970 first reports of Queen Scallop trawling:Erwin 1977 Describes S Lough Benthos

  • Roberts 1975 Describes M modiolus/Chlamys varia community;1978 Spartina spraying started;1979 Parker report on shellfish contaminants forerunner of Musselwatch study;1984 Investigation in double shelling and links with TBT;1984 Spartina spraying implicated as cause of sediment release;Late 1980s Queen Scallop trawling expands;

  • 1985 Ardmillan Bay designated under EC Shellfish Waters Directive;1989 Brown publishes report claiming trawling is destroying M modiolus communities;1990 DOE(NI) Commission Mathematical Model 1990 ISD report confirms trawling having impact;1993 DANI(DARD) introduces fishing restrictions;1993 DARD report on sediment metals1995 Possible introduction of Sargassum1996 Magorrian Thesis on Effects of commercial trawling (DARD studentship);

  • 1997 Spartina spraying resumed;1997 DARD project on Recovery of benthic communities project initiatedDARD/EHS report on Trophic Status of Lough1998-2000 Further DARD Report on Sediment Contaminants1999 Sea defence reconstruction begun at Newtownards;2001 Release of sediment from Killyleagh foreshore;

  • EutrophicationTrace Contaminants (Heavy metals and organics) in sediments;Shellfish contaminants;Physical disturbance;Algal toxins:

  • Routine MonitoringEC Shellfish Waters DirectiveEC Shellfish Hygiene DirectiveNational Marine Monitoring Plan (OSPAR JAMP)EHS Estuarine Classification

  • Water Quality:

    DARD/QUB AESD conducted a spatial and temporal survey of nutrient loading to the lough and nutrients, phytoplankton and chlorophyll in the lough over the period 1993-1996.EHS estuarine class programme collects limited low frequency nutrient and plankton data.EHS also monitor heavy metals in water as part of the EC Shellfish Waters monitoring .DARD- AESD analyse samples from active shellfish sites for presence of toxic algae fortnightly. This is reported annually.EHS-EP report input data from Ballyrickard STW, Killyleagh STW and Downpatrick STW.- the Quoile.

  • Loads(KG)05001000150020002500CADMIUMGAMMA-MERCURYPCB 118PCB 153PCB 28ZINC TOTALLoads(KG)OSPARCOM Loading Data

  • Nutrient Drivers:EC UWWT DirectiveEC Nitrates Directive

  • Eutrophication is defined by the EC (in the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive) as:the enrichment of waters by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and/orphosphorus, causing an accelerated growth of algae and higher forms of plant life to produce an undesirable disturbance to the balance of organisms present in the water and to the quality of the water concerned

  • Taylor and Service (1998)concludedIrish Sea is the largest source of nitrogen, phosphate and silicate loading to Strangford Lough The total annual anthropogenic load of DIN and SRP (excluding the Irish Sea and airborne deposition) to the Lough are 1 201 and 116 tonnes, respectively;

  • Eutrophication is defined by the EC (in the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive) as:the enrichment of waters by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and/orphosphorus, causing an accelerated growth of algae and higher forms of plant life to produce an undesirable disturbance to the balance of organisms present in the water and to the quality of the water concerned

  • Heavy MetalsKillyleagh outfall generated more than 10 tonnes of chromium per annum, although during the early 1990s, declined to nearer 1 tonne per annum;The high mercury concentration in mussels from Whiterock were similar to those found in mussels from the Inner Forth estuary in Scotland (Davies and Pirie 1980 in Gault et al. 1983) ;TBT Implicated in double shelling in oysters;

  • TBTRoutine monitoring for Imposex and Intersex in Dogwhelks and Winkles by EHS has shown little sign on effect;Edwards (2002) Suggested that Imposex records in Whelks show a reduction in TBT levels.

  • Sediment QualityIn 1990 approximately 30 samples were analysed at the
  • Service (1993) concluded that with the exception of chromium and mercury, all other metals show strong co-correlation and are therefore from a common, geochemical weathering source. By contrast, chromium and mercury are most likely to originate from the point source outfall at Killyleagh.

  • 2. Trace metal contamination

    Chart2

    56.5497494631407.211.9

    96.3511972634303.595.4

    147.8348439074195.462.6

    86.8736902267165.6105

    35.2070414083110.193.6

    33.5880933226124.272.9

    137.5295974743136.167.1

    136.634737032454.1144

    99.3870402802191.481.8

    95.22555295965.5134.1

    86.874607494278.358.2

    46.1107519931164.4132.2

    39.1137237169102.7113.5

    56.044548230695.8

    92.4437299035153.3

    38.276470133577.4

    21.3781255965102.3

    36.7072505906104.3

    60.9256004687

    23.6869207003

    16.6453265045

    33.5828444265

    26.939436905

    33.60885

    32.4615099239

    162.1566632757

    67.4769053118

    45.219123506

    35.43

    128.4274256038

    140.1825543071

    NWIS

    Belfast

    Strangford

    Al (%)

    Zn (g g-1)

    Cu

    Copper

    AlAlAlAlAl

    NWISNWISBelfastBelfastStrangfordStrangfordCarlingfordCarlingfordNWIS

    2.548.25.56104.42.845.365.4236.22.548.2

    4.1516.05.37605.6920.384.9727.54.1516.0

    5.5123.85.1437.64.7312.724.8121.75.5123.8

    3.7212.45.0135.86.2823.34.6620.13.7212.4

    2.115.04.115.45.5919.014.8821.62.115.0

    2.544.23.9312.54.8713.774.5818.32.544.2

    5.4821.14.2513.94.7313.434.0913.65.4821.1

    5.2422.83.16246.1320.52.253.55.2422.8

    4.5217.35.1330.22.888.583.998.74.5217.3

    4.8414.73.0712.65.3516.945.2422.64.8414.7

    4.5714.23.7292.965.124.5714.2

    3.366.24.5522.96.0318.693.366.2

    2.295.93.716.25.3551.892.295.9

    3.089.53.9311.73.089.5

    4.5214.74.9720.94.5214.7

    1.825.13.7211.11.825.1

    1.031.54.1141.031.5

    1.905.14.2214.11.905.1

    3.0210.93.0210.9

    1.182.91.182.9

    0.861.50.861.5

    1.262.81.262.8

    1.283.01.283.0

    2.255.32.255.3

    1.666.71.666.7

    5.8624.05.8624.0

    3.8110.93.8110.9

    0.967.40.967.4

    1.995.61.995.6

    5.2220.35.2220.3

    5.5621.25.5621.2

    Cu

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    000

    000

    000

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    NWIS

    Belfast

    Strangford

    Carlingford

    Pb

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    000

    000

    000

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Belfast 104, 5.6

    NWIS

    Belfast

    Strangford

    Carlingford

    Al (%)

    Cu (g g-1)

    Fe

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    000

    000

    000

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    NWIS

    Belfast

    Strangford

    Carlingford

    Al (%)

    Cu (g g-1)

    Ni

    AlAlAl

    NWISNWISBelfastBelfastStrangfordStrangfordCarlingfordCarlingford

    2.5413.25.56134.12.845.4248.3

    4.1518.45.3742.25.6930.34.9739.2

    5.5151.45.1423.14.7321.84.8132.3

    3.7224.05.0128.36.2838.94.6630.7

    2.1110.24.119.65.5930.14.8830.9

    2.546.43.934.8729.34.5827.3

    5.4825.34.254.7335.24.0918.7

    5.2443.73.166.1336.82.25

    4.5213.65.1352.72.8823.43.9918.1

    4.8418.63.075.3535.35.2441

    4.5719.53.7220.52.9614.6

    3.3614.44.5536.36.0330

    2.297.73.722.85.351545.8

    3.088.33.9326.8

    4.5210.54.9751.1

    1.826.53.7238.9

    1.036.54.149.6

    1.905.34.2237.7

    3.029.7

    1.184.5

    0.864.2

    1.267.4

    1.286.8

    2.2515.3

    1.669.3

    5.8629.9

    3.8112.8

    0.9617.7

    1.997.5

    5.2220.0

    5.5624.9

    Ni

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    0000

    000

    000

    000

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Belfast

    Strangfor