Mediterranean EuropePortugal, Spain, Italy, Greece
Physical FeaturesIslands- Malta, Sardinia, Crete, Balearic Islands, Corsica Apennines MountainsPo RiverTagus RiverEbro RiverTyrrhenian SeaAdriatic SeaMediterranean SeaBay of BiscayStrait of GibraltarItalian Peninsula Balkan Peninsula
Climate and VegetationMediterranean climate extends from southern Spain and France through Italy to Greece and other parts of the Balkan Peninsula. Summers are hot and dry with clear, sunny skies, while winters are moderate and wet.One reason for the climate is the mountain ranges block north winds from reaching the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas.Most Mediterranean countries experience a wind called the sirocco. (a hot steady south wind that blows from North Africa across the Mediterranean Sea into southern Europe.Vegetation that is seen is primarily evergreen shrubs and short trees that grow in climates with hot dry summers. Major crops are citrus fruits, olives, grapes, and wheat.
Human-Environment InteractionWaterways for Commerce: Venices Canals
Humans created this unique environment. Venice, Italy is made of about 120 islands and part of the mainland. A broad waterway called the Grand Canal flows between these islandsThere are 150 canals that snake around the city. You can either walk or take a boats to travel around Venice.How was Venice built?Builders sunk wooden pilings into the ground to help support the structures above. Some much wood was needed many parts of Northern Italy was flattened.Weight of buildings is so great that it has compressed the underlying ground. This is one of the reasons that Venice is gradually sinking. Other reasons include rising sea levels and the removal of too much groundwater by pumping.
Problems:There is severe water pollution that threatens historic buildings. Pollution includes: Industrial waste and sewageAlgae is created and when algae decays buildings it uses up oxygen which destroys fish
Beginning about 2000 B.C., people from the north moved onto the Balkan Peninsula. Why was the Mediterranean area a great place to start a civilization?- Trade- ClimateAncient Greece left a lasting legacy to modern civilization. How did they leave a lasting legacy?- first democracy- Athens (city-state)- philosophy, drama, and art
In the 400 B.C., conflict weakened Greece. Several city-states fought a costly series of wars with Persia, an empire in southwest Asia. Athens also had several battles with Sparta a rival Greek city-state.In 338 B.C. Macedonia conquered Greece. Beginning in 336 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered Persia and part of India. This spread Greek culture, but ended with his death.
Government TodayGreece is a presidential parliamentary republic.president is head of stateprime minister head of governmentunicameral parliament has 300 members
The Roman EmpireAs Greece lost power, a state to the west was rising. The state was Rome and it ruled most of the Italian Peninsula by 275 B.C. At that time Rome was a republic, a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name. Rome continued to expand and would eventually be ruled by an emperor, creating the Roman Empire. (Areas that saw Roman influence was England all the way to Palestine)Empire became so large it was split into two sections (east and west) the Western Roman Empire would weaken mainly because of strong German invaders from the north. The Eastern Roman Empire lasted for about 1,000 years longer.
Christianity spread through the Roman EmpireCrusades were launchedRenaissance started in the Italian city-states.A time of renewed interest in learning and the arts that lasted from the 14th through the 16th centuries. It was inspired by classical art and writings
Current Italian GovernmentA republic divided into 20 regions.Has a president and a prime minister
Spains EmpireIn the 700s, Muslims from North Africa conquered the Iberian Peninsula. Muslims controlled parts of the Iberian Peninsula for more than 700 years. Spains Catholic rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella, retook Spain from the Muslims in 1492.Around that time Spain and Portugal established colonies in the Americas and elsewhere. Their empires spread Catholicism and the Spanish and Portuguese languages throughout the world.i.e. Christopher Columbus
Mediterranean Europe saw political turmoil in the 20th century. Two dictators, Benito Mussolini in Italy and Francisco Franco in Spain, ruled for long periods. After Franco died in 1975, Spain set up a constitutional government. After World War II, Italy became a republic but has had dozens of governments since then.Currently Spain has a parliamentary monarch, King Juan Carlos I. Has a prime ministerCurrently Portugal has a republic divided into 18 districts
Cultural Legacyart, language, religion,