Mentoring Do’s and Don’t s Rudy Rodriguez Rudy.rodriguez@VA.GOV

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  • Mentoring Dos and Dont sRudy RodriguezRudy.rodriguez@VA.GOV

  • The Odyssey by Homer

    Mentor was a trusted friend of Odysseus. When the latter was about to set out for the Trojan war, he entrusted Mentor with the care of his house and the education of his beloved son, Telemachus.Mentor refers to a wise and faithful counselor or monitor.

  • Mentoring Dos and Dont sOutlineImportance of mentoring

    IntrospectionChoosing a MentorCultivating the mentormentee relationshipSeparation

  • What is mentoring?Mentoring is a symbiotic relationship aimed at advancing careers and career satisfaction for both the mentor and the mentee.J Gen Intern Med. 1998;13:117122.Am J Med. 2002;112:336 341.

  • Mentoring in Academic Medicine A Systematic ReviewDario Sambunjak, MD, Sharon E. Straus, MD, MSc, PRCPC, Ana Maruic, MD, PhDJAMA. 2006;296:1103-1115

  • Copyright restrictions may apply.Sambunjak, D. et al. JAMA 2006;296:1103-1115.Self-reported Prevalence of Mentorship in Academic and Health Institutions

  • Copyright restrictions may apply.Sambunjak, D. et al. JAMA 2006;296:1103-1115.General Importance of Mentorship Perceived by Respondents

  • Copyright restrictions may apply.Sambunjak, D. et al. JAMA 2006;296:1103-1115.Impact of Mentorship on Personal Development and Career Guidance

  • Copyright restrictions may apply.Sambunjak, D. et al. JAMA 2006;296:1103-1115.Impact of Mentorship on Specialty and Academic Career Choice

  • Copyright restrictions may apply.Sambunjak, D. et al. JAMA 2006;296:1103-1115.Impact of Mentoring on Research Development and Research CareerGuidance, and Research Productivity and Success

  • Men were 3 times as likely as women to describe a relationship with a mentor as a positive experience that influenced their careers. Negative experiences most often mentioned by both sexes were lack of funding and lack of a mentor: 24% of the women identified the lack of a mentor as 1 of the 2 most negative experiences they had in their careers.

  • Mentoring Dos and Dont sOutlineImportance of mentoring

    IntrospectionChoosing a MentorCultivating the mentormentee relationshipSeparation

  • IntrospectionThis training will be very different than nursing or medical school, residency, etc.Timeline for success is shortFocusPlanning

  • Making the Most of Mentors: A Guide for MenteesAcademic Medicine, Vol. 84, No. 1 / January 2009IntrospectionClarify your valuesIdentify your work style and habitsIdentify knowledge and skill gapsPersonalProfessional developmentSkill development Academic guidanceResearchList specific opportunities sought e.g. grant writing, presentationWrite down goals: 3 months, 1 year, 5 year

  • Personal preferencesGenderRaceLocation, electronic mentoringWork style

  • Identify knowledge and skill gapsPersonalcreating worklife balance, building confidence, setting limits on commitmentsProfessional development networking, establishing goals, setting sights on future jobsSkill developmentIdentify gaps, writing, managing time, increasing clinical skillsAcademic guidancelearning administrative skills, understanding department values, being a good citizen in the departmentResearchcollaborating, developing methodology, drafting manuscripts, and writing grants

  • Write down goals6 month, 1 year, 2 year, etcSkills (MPH, Programming, Lab skills, independence)PapersGrantsCompleted projectsFocus, focus, focusDetermine expectations of department

  • Clinical and Basic Science Research Pathways enter lab, develop research agenda, learn methods results, publicationsClinical year = 2nd year ============ 3rd & 4th year ============== learn clinical research methods, MPHJunior faculty= continue to develop mentored research program Independent researcher

    Funding: NIH K08 or K23NIH R01, othersFunding: training grant, F-32, other sources

  • Clarify your values and your departments values

  • American Journal of Public Health Supplement 1, 2009, Vol 99, No. S1

  • In reference to a prolific researcher: I just cant trust someone who has publishedas much as he has D.B.

  • AcademicsBuilding a Research Career in General Internal MedicineA Perspective from Young InvestigatorsJ Gen Intern Med. 1998;13:117122Rule 1: Know the rulesDivision chief, department chair, promotions committeeHow will your success be judged (productivity, grants) and what is an appropriate timeline.Rule 2: Show productivity early Rule 3: Focus, Focus, FocusRule 4: Know Your ResourcesRule 5: Good ideas are key

  • Finding a mentor

  • Finding a mentor (s)Assigned vs. gravitating towards a mentorMeet with people you already trust for advice and get recommendationsBe persistentSymbiotic relationshipThis is will be your first test.

  • Mentoring stylesWhat fits with your values?Mentor oneAlways is the corresponding authorRestricts collaborationsPapers are always referred as the mentors paperHeavily edits papersMentor twoAllows much more freedomEncourages papers without inclusion of the senior authors name.Provides advice, not controlling

  • Mentoring typesWhat fits with your values?Mentor #1Senior mentorAccess to multiple opportunities (data sets, has multiple grants, involved in many ongoing national studies, study coordinators, etc)Very busy and aloof.Mentor #2Junior mentorEarly success in a narrow area, good writer, skilled in programming, not too busy.Not well funded.Very friendly with common interests.

  • Solutionmultiple mentors, both junior and senior peopleWill only work if roles are delineatedMost people agree that you will need to build a team of mentors for grant success

  • Two Successful CareersClinical Science roads to K awardsFellow oneFamous mentorUse of mentors resources: contacts, data sets, statisticians, programmers.Fellow focused on writing papers, developing research ideasResults: many papers in a variety of journals.Fellow twoJunior mentorDeveloped statistical skills, performed analysis of data, developed collaborations.Mentor helped fellow with weaknesses (writing papers)Results: few papers, big impact.

  • Think of it as an Apprenticeship

  • Managing upBusiness Conceptmanaging up is the process of consciously working with your boss to obtain the best possible results for you, your boss, and your organization. Thomas Zuber and Erika JamesGuidelines: communicate; no surprises; provide solutions; be honest; be loyal; understand bosss perspective agenda, and perspective;

  • Managing the mentor relationshipManaging up mentee takes ownership of and directs the relationshipplanning and setting the meeting agenda, asking questions, listening, completing assigned tasks, and requesting feedback.Managing up makes it easier for a mentor to help a mentee

  • Things to look for in a mentorIs available and accessibleProvides opportunities and encourages mentee to take risksHelps mentee develop own agendaHas prior mentoring experienceContact past menteesDoes the mentor answer emails?Remember you are likely to work with a team of individuals

  • Remember what you learned during introspectionWill your mentor help with your skill gaps?Do you share common values?Will you enjoy spending time with your mentor?Will the relationship be symbiotic?Is your potential mentor mature and secure enough to let you develop your ideas?

  • Meeting for the first timeMentee must have a planPredefined goals and needsMentor and mentee share their backgroundsnote or e-mail summarizing the discussion and the mentees plans to proceed

  • Cultivating the mentormentee relationshipAgree on structure and objectives of relationshipPlan and set the meeting agendasAsk questionsActively listenFollow through on assigned tasksAsk for feedbackManage upSet goals and expectationsBe responsive and flexibleDirect the flow of informationFollow a regular meeting schedule with agenda

  • Cultivating the mentormentee relationshipCommunication is keyDetermine preference: Email, telephone, hallway conversationsAlways maintain a face-to-face meeting schedule (q 2 weeks, q month, etc)Agenda for meetingsProgress reportRespect limitsGoals and expectations

  • Advice given to mentors at other institutionsDoListen activelySupport and facilitate networking and brokeringTeach by exampleBe aware of role conflictEncourage and motivate mentee to move beyond their comfort zonePromote independencePromote balanceRejoice in success and convey your joyEncourage reciprocityDontFix the problemTake creditTake overThreaten, coerce or use undue influenceLose critical oversightallow friendship to cloud judgmentCondemn (mistakes or lack of agreement are not career altering disasters)

  • How will you manage disagreements?power issuesOwnership, authorship, money, resources generational tensions work schedule expectations, familypersonality clashescommunication or work styleRejection or ignoring your ideasBruised egos and hurt feelings

  • Common mentor complaintsmentee did not follow throughMentee did not use the mentors time effectivelyA poor fit with work style or personalityLack of focus and commitmentPoor writerPoor work habits

  • Common mentee complaintsDoes not answer emails, too busyAuthorship disputesDelays in providing feedback and guidanceDoesnt give credit or encouragementBlind sided by criticismDid not understand academic expectations

  • Take ultimate responsibility for scientific integrityCOPE guidelines to handle authorship disputes: a guide for new researchers Code of Conduct and Best Practice GuidelinesCommittee on Human ResearchRelationship with t