Mobile Microblogging: Using Twitter and Mobile Devices in ... Microblogging: Using Twitter and Mobile Devices in ... Keywords: Twitter; microblogging; mobile learning; social learning; online course; Web 2.0

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  • Mobile Microblogging: Using Twitter and Mobile Devices in an Online Course to Promote Learning in Authentic Contexts

    AbstractThis research applied a mixed-method design to explore how best to promote learning in authentic contexts in an online graduate course in instructional message design. The students used Twitter apps on their mobile devices to collect, share, and comment on au-thentic design examples found in their daily lives. The data sources included tweets (i.e., postings on Twitter), students perceptions about mobile microblogging activities, and self-reported Twitter usage. Based on the tweet analysis, we found that the students appropri-ately applied the design principles and design terms in their critique of design examples. While the students were mainly engaged in assignment-relevant activities, they spontane-ously generated social tweets as they related peers authentic design examples to their own life experiences. Overall, they had positive perceptions toward the mobile microblogging activities. The students also indicated that the design examples shared by peers through mobile microblogging inspired their own message design work. We synthesized instruc-tional design suggestions and challenges for educators interested in incorporating mobile microblogging in their instructional settings.

    Keywords: Twitter; microblogging; mobile learning; social learning; online course; Web 2.0

    Yu-Chang Hsu and Yu-Hui ChingBoise State University, USA

  • Mobile Microblogging: Using Twitter and Mobile Devices in an Online Course to Promote Learning in Authentic ContextsHsu and Ching

    Vol 13 | No 4 Research Articles October 2012 212

    IntroductionThe recent advances in mobile devices make mobile learning possible through the power-ful computing capability built into their conveniently small sizes, their Internet connectiv-ity, and the availability of many types of easy-to-use mobile software applications (mobile apps hereafter) (Johnson, Levine, Smith, & Stone, 2010). The major affordances of mobile computing technologies for learning include (a) mobility, the small sizes of the devices, making them highly portable, which enhances user mobility (Brown, 2009) and easy access to mobile devices; (b) computing power, relatively strong computing power, which enables users to complete tasks on small devices as effectively as on larger and less portable devices (Lai & Wu, 2006); (c) connectivity, always-on and stable Internet connectivity with high bandwidth, which allows for instant access to large amounts of information and real-time communication regardless of location (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine, & Haywood, 2011). These features unleash tremendous possibilities for innovative uses in education.

    Mobile technologies have the potential for innovative educational use because they allow learning to occur in authentic and meaningful contexts. Because of the mobility and strong computing power of mobile technologies, learning becomes ubiquitous and seamless (Liu, Tan, & Chu, 2009). Learners can now take mobile devices anywhere they want in order to execute tasks or continue their learning processes outside classrooms or traditional learn-ing environments. Learners can also go into the field, where they can apply their knowledge and skills in real-world settings. For example, mobile devices equipped with cameras and GPS (global positioning systems) make possible a variety of educational uses, such as data collection and documentation in field learning and field research. Together, all these advan-tages allow mobile device users to learn in their desired or preferred locations and physical contexts.

    In addition, the connectivity of mobile devices promotes social learning through communi-cation and collaboration among learners (Zurita & Nussbaum, 2004). Social learning usu-ally involves a group of learners who interact collaboratively to develop their knowledge or expertise in order to achieve their goals. Through sharing knowledge and experiences, learners can develop knowledge related to their field or their interests (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Mobile devices afford rich and varied opportunities for the communication and shar-ing (Motiwalla, 2007) critical to collaborative knowledge construction. In addition, learners can enjoy frequent and easier access to the Internet because they can be connected to the Web virtually anywhere. With the blossoming of Web 2.0 applications that emphasize par-ticipation and sharing (OReilly,2005) and the increasing availability of Web 2.0 applica-tions on mobile devices, learning can now be enhanced in both mobile and social contexts.

    Microblogging: A Web 2.0 Application for Social LearningWeb 2.0 applications, designed for communication, creation, and sharing, allow for collec-tive and cooperative creation of content and knowledge through easy and dynamic com-munication and publication mechanisms (Hsu, Ching, & Grabowski, 2009). Unlike the pas-sive knowledge consumption model of web use, Web 2.0 applications encourage and make

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    possible a participatory web where individuals contribute and participate in the creation of content and knowledgetogether. As such, Web 2.0 applications can provoke differ-ent learning perspectives, including sociocultural, situated, and distributed views (Ching & Hsu, 2011; Hsu, Ching, & Grabowski, in press). Among these perspectives, social learn-ing is particularly pertinent to Vygotskys sociocultural theory, which holds that learners construct knowledge through intellectual exchanges during their social interactions. In this view of learning, the social environment plays a critical role in enabling individuals devel-opment and learning (Tudge & Scrimsher, 2003). Considering their nature and purpose, Web 2.0 applications are ideal mediators for creating social environments conducive to social learning (Gunawardena et al., 2009) and helping to achieve social presence (Dunlap & Lowenthal, 2009). With these applications, social engagement critical to learning is ex-tended beyond the cultural perspectives of a local community to groups that are diverse and geographically dispersed, such as groups of learners in online learning environments. So-cial learning enhanced by Web 2.0 applications is likely to increase motivation (Pauschen-wein & Sfiri, 2010) and create relatedness and a sense of community (Wright, 2010) among learners.

    Microblogging is one of the latest Web 2.0 applications and can best be exemplified by the highly popular Twitter application (Ebner, Lienhardt, Rohs, & Meyer, 2010). Like blog-ging, microblogging allows for personal publication and conversation between writers and readers. One unique key feature of microblogging is the short-and-sweet constraint it pos-esthe limited number of characters per entry. Twitter, for example, allows for only 140 characters per post. This prevents long-winded entries and forces microbloggers to post concise messages. While this format of publication may not allow for in-depth composition in any single entry, the lightweight requirement and mechanism make it easier for people to follow up on conversations and give immediate feedback (Ebner et al., 2010) because indi-viduals do not need to put in too much time and effort at once. The short messages are very similar to exchanges of real-time text chat on Instant Messenger. However, Twitter does not impose time pressure on the conversant on either end for responding or turn-taking because it does not require synchronous presence. Participants in microblogging only get involved when they feel like it. In addition, microblogging applications allow users to easily share resources such as hyperlinks to web-based multimedia, including images or videos.

    In some educational contexts, microblogging has been used for back-channel chat to en-hance the communication between the presenter and audience. For example, Elavsky, Mis-lan, and Elavsky (2011) studied students using Twitter for in-class feedback and asking questions during lectures with large audiences (approximately 240 students in their study), where the customary method of asking questions by raising hands could have interrupted the flow of the class. Although Elavsky et al. found that students class participation and en-thusiasm improved, about 47% of the students did not actively use Twitter (posting one or no tweets) for class activities. While this type of microblogging activity helps improve class dynamics, it does not exploit the full potential for social learning because it mainly encour-ages instructor-to-student communication and lacks peer-to-peer interaction.

    In other educational situations, microblogging was used as a social networking tool to pro-

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    mote social interaction and community building. Wright (2010) studied how microblogging helped education students develop self-reflective practices during their practicum. As the participants in Wrights study were required to regularly record and share their thoughts about their teaching practices using Twitter, they reported that they valued the constant contact within the community that was built using the microblogging (i.e., Twitter) because the interaction mitigated their feelings of isolation. Also, Waller (2010) incorporated Twit-ter to help struggling writers (primary school students) communicate their thinking to each other. It was found that students enjoyed writing and felt excited because they had a real audience that included not only their classmates but also other followers beyond the class.

    From the learning perspective, microblogging fosters intellectual exchanges among stu-dents or between students and the instructor, through asking questions, giving feedback, exchanging ideas, sharing resources, and reflecting on learning (Ebner & Maurer, 2008). Examining college students using microblogging for project-oriented communication, Eb-ner et al. (2010) found that this tool supported informal learning and social interaction during group work. They also found that microblogging enhanced process-oriented learn-ing because learners were able to help shape each others developing ideas through posting thoughts and information pieces.

    Microblogging applications have recently become available on mobile devices, and users can benefit from the mobility, computing power, and connectivity of mobile devices dur-ing microblogging. This availability, therefore, takes learning through microblogging to the next levelmobile social learning. Namely, social learning can now go with learners truly anytime, anywhere, and with ease. This enables both social learning and learning in au-thentic contexts that learners create, share, and communicate in real time. For example, learners who find good examples (e.g., photos) related to their learning can create a sam-ple through the camera on their mobile devices, share it with peers through Twitter, and communicate their thoughts with short messages. Mobile social learning thus provides an environment where users can build an authentic learning context for their collaborative knowledge construction. The use of mobile social learning has opened up promising oppor-tunities for social interactions, especially for learners in online learning environments who rely heavily on technology for communication.

    Research Purpose and QuestionsThis study investigated the impact of mobile microblogging on students participation in authentic learning. The following research questions guided this study:

    What kind of interactions are students engaged in when participating in mobile micro-blogging activities? Are the tweets more about designated coursework or social conver-sation? What kinds of social conversation would students be engaged in?

    How do students benefit from learning that is situated in authentic contexts and en-abled by mobile microblogging?

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    Through this study, the authors aim to (a) provide useful design suggestions for educators to incorporate mobile microblogging in online learning in meaningful and engaging ways, and (b) explore challenges in design and implementation in order to inform instructional design decisions.


    Study ContextThis study was implemented in a fully online graduate course in instructional message de-sign in a mid-size state university in the northwestern United States. This online course was hosted on the Moodle learning management system (LMS) provided by Moodlerooms, Inc. The goal of the course was to have students learn to apply learning and design theories and principles in order to select, combine, and design visuals to effectively communicate in-structional information. With emphasis on instructional message design, students in class learned about visual graphic design principles and created graphics for instructional use in their own professional settings. The 16 students enrolled in this course included K-12 teach-ers, school technology specialists, military personnel, and corporate trainers. Students in this course were required to have smartphones or mobile devices with Internet and camera capability. With the mobile learning component being funded by a university grant (i.e., mLearning scholars), students had the option of purchasing a subsidized mobile device (i.e., the fourth-generation iPod Touch) if they did not have one or needed one for this course.

    The Mobile Microblogging Activities in this StudyThe mobile microblogging activities, lasting for nine weeks, were designed to help students leverage the potential of mobile computing and the Web 2.0 application Twitter during their learning. The goal of the activities was to extend students learning context from the content in class to their authentic real-life settings. Each week, each student was required to post at least one original tweet with one graphic design example collected from his/her environment and to comment on the collected design examples. The students were encour-aged to share examples related to each weeks design topic, such as typography, color, or shape. Also, they were asked to reply to at least two peers course-related tweets each week. In the activities, students took advantage of mobile device capabilities, documented design examples from their daily-life contexts using the on-device camera, concisely commented on design examples, and shared those examples with the class via Twitter mobile apps. In both original and response tweets, the students were instructed to include a hash...