Module Five PERSONALITY DISORDERS Human Personality & Various Personality Disorders

Module Five PERSONALITY DISORDERS Human Personality & Various Personality Disorders

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Human Personality & Various Personality Disorders

Step 1: Slide projection

Slide 5.1.1: The definition of personality

The term of personality refers to the standard characteristics of the person that are manifested by the way the person behaves in a range of different situations.

Step 2: Theory presentation Describing a Personality Disorder is a difficult

task and leads to one of the most contradictory fields of psychiatry.

It is (generally) accepted that the disorder exists when the person himself or other people around him suffer from his personality.

Personality Disorders are very common and appear at 10-20% of the population. Some are more frequent to men (Antisocial) and other to women (Borderline, Dependent).

The severity of pathologic characteristics is milder as the person grows older.

The therapeutical interventions are mostly psychological.

Step 3: slide projection Slide 5.2.1: definition of Personality Disorder

according to DSM IV

Personality disorder is a insistent and lasting type of intrinsic emotion and behaviour which deviates from the expectations of the person’s culture, is widely spread and unbending, begins in adolescence or during young adulthood, is (forever) stable and leads to subjective disturbance or functional decline.

Step 4: Slide Projection Slide 5.2.2: General characteristics of Personality

Disorders Rigid and difficulty adaptation reaction to stress Marked unstable interpersonal relationships, in

work and entertainment Attributing responsibility of their problems to

others Lack of self awareness Appearance of complications

Step 5: Slide projection Slide 5.2.3: categories of patients with Personality

Disorders. Α. Patients that usually appear odd or eccentric Paranoid Schizoid SchizotypalΒ. Patients that often appear theatrical with

intense emotions or unstable at their interpersonal relationships. Antisocial Borderline Histrionic Narcissistic

Γ. Patients usually stressed or frightened Avoidant Dependent Obsessive/ Compulsive

Step 6: Theory presentation Paranoid Personality Disorder

Distrust and suspicion towards others in a way that their motives are always considered as evil-minded.

Step 6 (continued)

Schizoid Personality Disorder

detachment from social relationships and a very limited range of emotion

Step 6 (continued)

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Marked difficulty and insufficiency in interpersonal relationships and eccentricity, peculiarity, fussiness in thinking, talking (conversation, conversing) and behavior.

Step 6 (continued)

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Long history of disregard and violation of others rights, manifested with irresponsible behavior and absence of guilt, indifference for the law and illegal behavior, impossibility to keep a steady job, exploitation, and manipulation of others for personal interest, deceiving others and difficulty in stable relationships.

Step 6 (continued)

Borderline Personality Disorder

Marked instability expressed in different situations of the person’s life, as interpersonal relationships, image for self and instability in affect, as well as great impulsiveness.

Step 6 (continued)

Histrionic Personality Disorder

exaggerated displays of emotional reactions, attention seeking.

Step 6 (continued)

Narcissistic Personality DisorderGreat sense of self importance and grandeur, marked

need for admiration and failure to be interested and recognize the needs, experiences and feelings

of others.

Step 6 (continued)

Avoidant Personality DisorderMarked social inhibition, feeling of inadequacy and

extreme sensitivity to criticism.

Step 6 (continued)

Dependent Personality Disorder

Is characterized with a extreme need of being looked after by others, to a point where there is submissive behavior and fear of separation.

Step 6 (continued)

Obsessive compulsive Personality DisorderObsessive about keeping things in order,

perfectionism and controlling, which leads to lack of flexibility, inability to openly express emotions and be productive

Step 7 More detailsSlide 5.2.4: Paranoid Personality Disorder  The person: suspects with no grounds that others are exploiting,

harming, or deceive her / him. bothered by Unjustified doubts about a friends /

associates loyalty or trustworthiness. unwilling to confide personal matters to others. Finds hidden demeaning or threatening meanings in

harmless remarks. Unable to forgive and bears grudges. he / she cannot

forgive insults, traumatisms or underestimating him/ her. Perceives attacks against his/her personality or reputation

and counteracts with anger. Has recurrent groundless suspicions, regarding the

faithfulness of his wife/ her husband or sexual partner.

Step 7 (continued)Slide 5.2.5: Schizoid Personality Disorder the person : Neither wants nor is happy with close

relationships. Almost always chooses solitary activities. Has little interest, if none, in having

sex with another person. Few activities make him happy, if any. Has no close or trustful friends. Appears indifferent to praise or criticism. Shows emotional coldness, is distant or has

flattened emotions.

Step 7 (continued)Slide 5.2.6: Schizotypal Personality Disorder the person appears: Ideas of reference . Magical thinking or odd beliefs. Odd perceptual experiences. Odd thinking or speech. Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation. Narrowed or inappropiated affect. Eccentric, odd, or peculiar behavior / appearance. Few or no close friends or confidants. Excessive social anxiety that is not reduced

through familiarity and tends to be related with paranoid fears than low self esteem.

Step 7 (continued)Slide 5.2.7: Antisocial Personality Disorder it is manifested : Inability to follow society rules according o

lawful behaviour. Conning, repeated lying, use of false names etc. Failure to plan ahead or being impulsive Irritability and aggressiveness. Reckless when it comes to their or others safety. Constant negligence. Lack of guilt.

Step 7 (continued)Slide 5.2.8: Borderline Personality Disorder There are: Going to about any lengths to avoid real or imagined

abandonment. Intense unstable interpersonal relationships characterized

by characterized by idealization and followed by devaluation.

disturbance of identity: A Marked instability of self image or the sense of self.

Impulsiveness. Recurrent suicidal behavior. Instability in affect due to intense reactivity of mood. Long lasting feelings of emptiness, intense anger or

difficulty in controlling anger. Temporary paranoid ideation or dissociative symptoms

related to stress.

Step 7 (continued)Slide 5.2.9: Histrionic Personality Disorder it is characterized by the following : Uncomfortable if not the center of attention. Shows inappropriate provocative or seductive

manner. Shows shallow and rapid changing of emotion. Uses appearance to draw attention. Speech that lacks in detail and excessively

impressionistic. Theatrical, self dramatization, or out of proportion

expression of emotion. Easily influenced, suggestible. Feels even a sociable relationship is intimate

Step 7 (continued)Slide 5.2.10: Narcissistic Personality Disorder the person : Has grandiose sense of self-importance. Is preoccupied by fantasies of unlimited success, power,

brilliance, beauty or ideal love. Has a belief of being special and unique. Demands

excessive admiration. Has a sense of special rights. Will use others to achieve her / his goals. Lacks empathy. Often envies others or believes others are envious of her /

him. Has contemptuous or  haughty attitudes.

Step 7 (continued)Slide 5.2.11: Avoidant Personality Disorder the person : Avoids professional activities that involves important

interpersonal contact. Is unwilling to get involved due to a fear of not being

liked by others. Shows restraints in intimate relationships due to a fear of

shame. Has great worry whether she/ he will be criticized or

rejected by others. Keeps back from new interpersonal situations due to

feelings of inadequacies. Views oneself as inferior, socially inept, or personally

unappealing. Is unwilling to takes part in new activities, for a fear of

being embarrassed.  

Step 7 (continued)Slide 5.2.12: Dependent Personality Disorder The person : Has a hard time in making everyday decisions with out getting advice

from others. Needs others to take the responsibility for the major areas of his / her

life. Unable to make an argument with others. Difficulty in doing things on their own. Does exceeding efforts to get the support of others. Feels uncomfortable on its own as he/she fears that cannot look after

himself/herself. When one intimate relationship is over he/she is compelled to seek a

new one. Is intensely and unreasonably preoccupied with fears he/she will be

left alone.

Step 7 (continued)Slide 5.2.13: Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder  The person : Has marked preoccupation with

details, lists, order, organization, rules, or schedules. Has marked perfectionism that interferes with the completion of the

task. Is exceedingly devoted to work and productivity. Is over scrupulous, meticulous and inflexible in matters of morality,

ethics or values. Is unable to throw out worn-out, useless, or worthless objects, with

no sentimental value. Does not do apportion of tasks/duties. Becomes stingy. Is Stubborn and rigid.

Step 7: Questions and comments (5΄)