Personality disorders

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Define what constitutes a “personality disorder”. Explore the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality. Review the three (3) major personality “clusters”. Look at the ten (10) individual personality disorders.

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Page 1: Personality disorders


Andy Novinska - MS, LCPC, CADC

Page 2: Personality disorders


Define what constitutes a “personality disorder”.

Explore the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality.

Review the three (3) major personality “clusters”.

Look at the ten (10) individual personality disorders.

Page 3: Personality disorders


The following information may lead you to

diagnose your significant other, friends,

children, in-laws, siblings, parents, boss,

coworkers, bank teller, pet…or even

worse… yourself!

Consume with care.

Page 4: Personality disorders

Core areas of Personality Disorders

Personality disorders involve:

1. Extreme and distorted thought patterns.

2. Problematic emotional response patterns.

3. Pattern of impulse control problems.

4. Pattern of significant interpersonal problems.

These long term patterns are not better explained by culture, another mental health disorder, chemical use or a

physical illness/condition.

Page 5: Personality disorders

Personality Disorder Basics

Individuals with personality disorders usually do not seek

help/treatment on their own. Often driven by:

Other Disorders (depression, anxiety, substance)

Employment or legal issues

Behavioral Issues (fights, gambling, alcohol/drugs, sexual acting out,

disordered eating, etc.)

Although difficult to treat, evidence indicates that both medication

and therapy can work.

Some personality disorders lessen during middle age (without

treatment) while others continue throughout life despite intervention.

Personality disorders are diagnosed based on psychological

evaluation (including testing), personal history and severity of


Page 6: Personality disorders

Five Factor Model (FFM)

The Five Factor Model are five general dimensions of personality

that are used to describe human personality. They are spectrum

based with these five areas deemed “healthy” aspects of


Openness (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious)

Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas,

curiosity, and variety of experience.

Conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. easygoing/careless)

Tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for

achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior.

Page 7: Personality disorders

Five Factor Model (FFM)

Extraversion (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved)

Energy, positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek

stimulation in the company of others.

Agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind)

A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than

suspicious and antagonistic.

Neuroticism (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident)

A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as

anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability.

Curious where you fall on the spectrum?

Take the Five Factor Personality Test

Page 8: Personality disorders

DSM-5, Cluster A – Odd or Eccentric

Paranoid - Hypersensitive and easily insulted; they scan their environment for clues or suggestions that validate their ideas/biases. Persistently holds grudges and are very suspicious.

Schizoid - Indifferent towards social relationships; lean heavily towards a solitary lifestyle. Often indifferent to praise or criticism with an emotional flatness or coldness.

Schizotypal - Often display odd or eccentric behaviors with inappropriate or constricted affect. May have a strong/vivid fantasy world and/or odd beliefs (clairvoyance, telepathy, etc.). Usually lack close friends and are socially anxious.

Page 9: Personality disorders

Cluster A – Odd or Eccentric

Page 10: Personality disorders

DSM 5, Cluster B – Dramatic, Emotional or Erratic

Antisocial - Disregard for the rights of others that begins in

childhood/early adolescence and continues into adulthood. Sneaky,

impulsive, deceitful behaviors with no remorse and/or indifference towards


Narcissistic - Grandiosity with a need for admiration and a lack of

empathy for others. Preoccupied with competence, power and prestige.

Often envious of others with a sense of entitlement and will exploit others to

meet their needs.

Histrionic - Excessive need for approval and desire to be the center of

attention. Are often animated, dramatic, seductive or flirtatious. Feels

relationships are closer than what they may actually be.

Borderline - Poor self-image/identity with an abnormal level of mood

swings. Chaotic and unbalanced in their interpersonal relationships with fear

of abandonment. Will swing from worshipping someone to demonizing them.

High levels of impulsive behaviors (shopping, sex, substances, etc.).

Page 11: Personality disorders

DSM-5 Cluster B – Dramatic, Emotional & Erratic

Page 12: Personality disorders

DSM-5, Cluster C – Anxious or Fearful

Avoidant - Ongoing pattern of social inhibition coupled with feelings of inadequacy. Have an extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation and will avoid social interactions. Carry feelings of being socially inept and unlikeable.

Dependent - View the world as being uncaring and dangerous and themselves as inadequate and weak. Feel unable to cope on their own and have difficulties making everyday decisions without extensive advice from others.

Obsessive-compulsive - Preoccupied with rules, lists, details, order (etc.). Are often rigid in their belief system, have strict morals and want things done exactly their way. May also hoard items of no value and be very tightfisted with money.

Page 13: Personality disorders

Cluster C – Anxious or Fearful

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Prevalence Rates

Cluster A, Odd or Eccentric

Paranoid, 2.3 - 4.4%

Schizoid, 3.1 - 4.9%

Schizotypal, 3.9 - 4.6%

Cluster B, Dramatic, Emotional or Erratic

Antisocial, .2 - 3.3%

Borderline, 1.6 - 5.9%

Histrionic, 1.8%

Narcissistic, 6.2%

Cluster C, Anxious or Fearful

Avoidant, 2.4%

Dependent, .49 - .6%

Obsessive Compulsive, 2.1 - 7.9%

Source: DSM-5

Page 15: Personality disorders

Next Up

Treatment for personality disorders and the comorbid

conditions that can accompany them.

Andy Novinska - MS, LCPC, CADC