Mosquito Poster

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  1. 1. We thank the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs for supporting this research, and Learning & Technology Services for printing this poster. Collection and Identification of Mosquitoes in Eau Claire County, WI as Potential West Nile Virus Carriers Jennifer Nimmo and Pang Xiong- Yang BSEPH Candidates ENPH 441 Water and Waste Water University of Wisconsin Eau Claire: Environmental Public Health SITE LOCATION Figure 5: Encephalitis Vector Survey CO2 Mosquito traps RESULTS Dense vegetation with wooded area Small plant growth Water edge 25 feet away Cattail vegetation on waters edge Calm water conditions Human traffic on both East and West sides Methods adopted from Eau Claire County Health Department Four collection sites Locations in Eau Claire County, WI Determination of sites: habitat, preferred vegetation, water source Refer to figure 4 Mosquito site location map MOSQUITO TRAPS Cooler with holes on the bottom Held dry ice Allows release of CO2 to attract mosquitoes Fan Housing Fan housing attached under cooler Included a light as an additional attractant May or may not be located under metal pan Net attached to fan housing Placement Hung 5-6 feet in a tree Nets 2 feet off the ground Placed in field for 48 hours Specimen Collection Collected and frozen for mosquito preservation Figure 6: Center for Disease Control miniature light trap MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION Identified using visual identification through the use of a microscope and hand separation Figure 2: West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease incidence Reported to ArboNET, by state, United States, 1999 Figure 3: West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease incidence Reported to ArboNET, by state, United States, 2015 TYPES OF MOSQUITOS Common carriers of WNV A. Vexans Larvae hatch from overwintering eggs Appears when Temperatures reach 70 F Around June Coquillettida perturbans Associated with roots and stems of vegetation surrounding bogs, ponds, and lakes Culex Predominately transmit WNV Eggs are laid on surface of standing water In areas of no plant life Anopheles Primary Malaria Carriers Prefers to feed on animals such as cattle Occasionally feed on humans Determine mosquito quantities in Eau Claire County, WI that: Potentially carry WNV Are present in highly human populated outdoor settings Identify areas most at risk due to increased quantities of WNV carrier mosquitoes SITE A: CARSON PARK- BRAUN'S BAY SITE B: PUTNAM TRAIL Dense vegetation with wooded area Small plant growth Stream located 10 feet away from trap Forest floor often damp Swamp like conditions Human traffic south of trap location on Putnum bike/walking trail, including UW-Eau Claire SITE C: LOWES CREEK PARK Dense vegetation with wooded area Small plant growth No water source near by Multiple public trails on all sides of trap w/in 5 and more feet SITE D: RESIDENTS IN HILLVIEW RD Shane Sanderson, Eau Claire Environmental Public Health Department Laura Suppes, Environmental Public Health assistant professor Office of Research and sponsored programs SITE E: HICKORY HILLS GOLF COURSE Public golf course public exposure on all sides of traps Dense vegetation with wooded area Small plant growth Many ferns across forest floor Includes 2 ponds (50 foot and 75 foot away from site) In-ground watering system SITE F: RESIDENTS ON BALSAM RD Private crop farming residents Dense vegetation with wooded area Small plant growth Crop irrigation system located 25 foot from trap site Private farm residents Dense vegetation with wooded area Small plant growth Dried swamp bed 10 foot away from trap at times of increased rains, swamp bed was damp 1. Anopheles Mosquitoes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012, November 9. http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/mosquitoes/. 2. Anopheles. Valent BioScience Corporation. 2014. http://publichealth.valentbiosciences.com/public-health/insects/mosquitoes/anopheles . 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention West Nile virus. 2015, August 18. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/mosquitoSpecies.htm. 4. Crans, Wayne J.. 2013, March 18. Aedes vexans (Meigen). Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Science. http://www- rci.rutgers.edu/~insects/sp13.htm. 5. Irwin, P., Arcari, C., Hausbeck, J., & Paskewitz, S. (2008). Urban Wet Environment as Mosquito Habitat in the Upper Midwest. EcoHealth, 49- 57. 6. Molaei, G., Andreadis, T.G., Armstrong, P.M., Anderson, J.F.. (2006 March). Host Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes and West Nile Virus Transmission, Northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(3): 468-474. 7. Prevention and Control: Mosquitoes and Disease. Illinois Department of Public Health. 2007. March 29. http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pcmosquitoes.htm 8. Romanowski, M. and Candeletti, T.. 2013, March 18. Identification and surveillance of Coquillettidia perturbans breeding habitat, with observations on larviciding techniques, in Ocean County, NJ. Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Science. http://www- rci.rutgers.edu/~insects/sp16.htm 9. Westcott, N., Hillberg, S., Lampman, R., Alto, B., Bedel, A., Muturi, E.,... Novak, R. (n.d.) .Predicting the Seasonal Shift in Mosquito Populations Preceding the Onset of the West Nile Virus in Central Illinois Bull. Amer. Meteor.Soc. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 1173- 1180. 10. West Nile Virus. Wisconsin Department of Health Services. 2015, August 19. https://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/arboviral/westnilevirus.htm. Through observations Quantities were directly related to vegetation Quantities were directly related to water sources Summer long collection provided intuitive data Determined greater quantities of mosquitoes present during a specific time of summer Increases Public education Use of insect repellants during peak months Wear long sleeves, pants and socks when outdoors Protect your home Repair/install screens to keep mosquitoes out Reduce mosquito reproductive conditions Clear stagnant water from property/public areas West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne vector virus Hosts of WNV include equine and avian species All species need a water source for reproduction BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES METHODS F E D A B C High quantities of Aedes and C. perturbans were collected throughout the summer High quantities of mosquitoes collected Site A (810 mosquitoes) Site E (225 mosquitoes) Site B (160 mosquitoes) Site F (133 mosquitoes) Site C (54 mosquitoes) Site D (0 mosquitoes) MOSQUITO COLLECTION DATA DISCUSSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES PUBLIC RECOMMENDATIONS WNV has increased in the United States In 1999: 62 WNV cases reported In 2015: 1,812 WNV cases reported Figure 1: Mosquito Life Cycle Figure 4: Mosquito site location map Mosquito Quantity Collection June August 2015 In Eau Claire County WI MOSQUITO COLLECTION DATA