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You should learn to:Define the motivation processDescribe three early motivation theoriesExplain how goals motivate peopleDifferentiate reinforcement theory from goal-setting theoryIdentify ways to design motivating jobs



    Chapter 16

  • Learning ObjectivesYou should learn to:Define the motivation processDescribe three early motivation theoriesExplain how goals motivate peopleDifferentiate reinforcement theory from goal-setting theoryIdentify ways to design motivating jobs

    Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Learning Objectives (cont.)You should learn to:Describe the motivational implications of equity theoryExplain the key relationships in expectancy theoryDescribe current motivation issues facing managersIdentify management practices that are likely to lead to more motivated employees Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • What is motivation?Motivation refers to forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work.Direction an individuals choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives.Level the amount of effort a person puts forth.Persistence the length of time a person stays with a given action.

  • The Motivation Process Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • The Basic Motivational Model 1. Needs (deficiencies) 2. Search for ways to satisfy needs3. Goals directed behaviors4. performance5. Rewards or punishments6. Needs reassessed by the employeeThe Employee

  • Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theoryeach level in hierarchy must be satisfied before the next is activatedonce a need is substantially satisfied it no longer motivates behaviortheory received wide recognitionlittle research support for the validity of the theoryEarly Theories Of Motivation Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Description Five Basic Needs Physiological needs- Required to sustain life- chemical needs of the body hunger, thirst, sleeplessness, sexual desire Safety needs:- security from threatening events or surroundings- living in safe environment, medical insurance, job security, financial reservesSocial / affiliation needs: - friendship, belonging to a group, giving and receiving love

  • Description Five Basic Needs Esteem needs:falls into two categories:Internal esteem needs:- desires for such feelings as power, achievement, confidence, freedom, independenceExternal esteem needs:- derived from reputation, prestige, recognition. Attention and importanceBoth group of needs leads to more self confidenceSelf-actualization needs- realize or actualize ones self potential- includes needs such as truth, justice, wisdom \, meaning

  • Ways to fulfill the five needsPhysiological Needs:- lunch breaks, rest breaks, wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of lifeSafety needs:- safe work environment, job security, medical benefits, retirement benefitsSocial / affiliation needs:- create feeling of acceptance, belonging and community by reinforcing team dynamicsEsteem needs:- recognize achievements, assign important projects, provide status to make employees feel important and valuedSelf actualization need :- provide challenging and meaningful work which enables innovation, creativity, and progress in the long term

  • Early Theories Of Motivation (cont.)McGregors Theory X and Theory YTheory X assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility, and need to be closely controlledassumed that lower-order needs dominatedTheory Y - assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, accept and actually seek out responsibility, and consider work to be a natural activityassumed that higher-order needs dominatedno evidence that either set of assumptions is validno evidence that managing on the basis of Theory Y makes employees more motivated Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Early Theories Of Motivation (cont.)Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theoryintrinsic characteristics consistently related to job satisfactionmotivator factors energize employeesextrinsic characteristics consistently related to job dissatisfactionhygiene factors dont motivate employeesproposed dual continua for satisfaction and dissatisfactiontheory enjoyed wide popularityinfluenced job designtheory was roundly criticized Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Contrasting Views Of Satisfaction-DissatisfactionSatisfaction No Satisfaction No Dissatisfaction DissatisfactionMotivatorsHygienesSatisfaction DissatisfactionHerzbergs ViewTraditional View Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Contemporary Theories Of MotivationThree-Needs Theory - McClellandneed for achievement (nAch) drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, and to strive to succeeddo not strive for trappings and rewards of successprefer jobs that offer personal responsibilitywant rapid and unambiguous feedbackset moderately challenging goalsavoid very easy or very difficult taskshigh achievers dont necessarily make good managersfocus on their own accomplishmentsgood managers emphasize helping others to accomplish their goals Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Contemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont.)Three-Needs Theory (cont.)need for power (nPow)need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwiseneed for affiliation (nAff)desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationshipsbest managers tend to be high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Examples of Pictures used for Asscess Levels of nAch, nAff, and aPow Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Contemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont.)Goal-Setting Theoryintention to work toward a goal is a major source of job motivationspecific goals increase performancedifficult goal, when accepted, results in higher performance than does an easy goalspecific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of do your bestparticipation in goal setting is usefulreduces resistance to accepting difficult goalsincreases goal acceptance Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Contemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont.)Goal-Setting Theory (cont.)feedback is usefulhelps identify discrepancies between what has been accomplished and what needs to be doneself-generated feedback is a powerful motivatorcontingencies in goal-setting theorygoal commitment - theory presupposes that individual is determined to accomplish the goalmost likely to occur when:goals are made publicindividual has an internal locus of controlgoals are self-set rather than assigned Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Contemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont.)Goal-Setting Theory (cont.)contingencies (cont.)self-efficacy - an individuals belief that s/he is capable of performing a taskhigher self-efficacy, greater motivation to attain goalsnational culture - theory is culture boundmain ideas align with North American culturesgoal setting may not lead to higher performance in other cultures Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Guidelines for Job Redesign Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Reinforcement Theorybehavior is solely a function of its consequencesbehavior is externally causedreinforcers consequences that, when given immediately following a behavior, affect the probability that the behavior will be repeatedmanagers can influence employees behavior by reinforcing actions deemed desirableemphasis in on positive reinforcement, not punishmentContemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont.) Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • The Practice of reinforcing

    consequence ofContingentReward( something desirable)Noxious Stimuli(Something aversive or undesirable)ApplicationPositive Reinforcement Behavior IncreasePunishment Behavior DecreaseWithdrawalPunishment/ extinctionBehavior DecreaseNegative ReinforcementBehavior Decrease

  • Designing Motivating JobsJob Design the way tasks are combined to form complete jobshistorically, concentrated on making jobs more specializedJob Enlargement horizontal expansion of job job scope the number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which these tasks are repeatedprovides few challenges, little meaning to workers activitiesonly addresses the lack of variety in specialized jobsContemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont.) Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.)Job Enrichment vertical expansion of jobjob depth - degree of control employees have over their workempowers employees to do tasks typically performed by their managersresearch evidence has been inconclusive about the effect of job enrichment on performanceContemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont.) Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Contemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont.)Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.)Job Characteristics Model (JCM) - conceptual framework for analyzing jobs jobs described in terms of five core characteristicsskill variety - degree to which job requires a variety of activitiesmore variety, greater need to use different skillstask identity - degree to which job requires completion of an identifiable piece of worktask significance - degree to which job has substantial impact on the lives of other peoplethese three characteristics create meaningful work Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.)JCM (cont.)core characteristics (cont.)autonomy - degree to which job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in performing the workgive employee a feeling of personal responsibilityfeedback - degree to which carrying out the job results in receiving clear information about the effectiveness with which it has been performedemployee knows how effectively s/he is performingContemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont.) Prentice Hall, 200216-*

  • Job Characteristics ModelCore JobDimensionsSkill VarietyTask Id