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NAVAL POSTGRADUATE · PDF file Asymmetric, Guerilla Warfare, Counterinsurgency, COIN, Military Operations in Urban Terrain, MOUT, Low Intensity Conflict, Stabilization and Reconstruction,

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  • NAVAL

    POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

    MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA

    THESIS

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

    CONFLICT WITHOUT CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE

    by

    Richard L. Scott

    September 2007

    Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader: Sophal Ear

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    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)

    2. REPORT DATE September 2007

    3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard L. Scott

    5. FUNDING NUMBERS

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

    9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A

    10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

    11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

    12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE

    13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In this thesis I show that the casualties associated with warfare can be largely avoided. This includes combatant casualties, as well as noncombatant and friendly forces. The U.S. military is frequently tasked with deploying into foreign countries and performing duties that range from conventional combat operations to humanitarian relief and training host nationals. The politics of every deployment are complicated and invariably there will be some resistance, both domestically and internationally. People may feel victimized or marginalized and may demonstrate with protests, both peaceful and violent. How, then, may the use of non-lethal force be best applied in hostile situations in lieu of the “shout or shoot” approach commonly associated with military operations? Scientific advances in non-lethal technology may serve to curb violence while still allowing Soldiers and Marines to accomplish their missions.

    15. NUMBER OF PAGES

    93

    14. SUBJECT TERMS Non-Lethal Weapons, NLW, Less Lethal, Irregular Warfare, Unconventional, Asymmetric, Guerilla Warfare, Counterinsurgency, COIN, Military Operations in Urban Terrain, MOUT, Low Intensity Conflict, Stabilization and Reconstruction, Stability Operations, Support Operations, SOSO, Security Operations. 16. PRICE CODE

    17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

    Unclassified

    18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

    Unclassified

    19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT

    Unclassified

    20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

    UU NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18

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    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

    CONFLICT WITHOUT CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE

    Richard L. Scott

    Captain, United States Army B.A., University of Washington, Tacoma, 2001

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (STABILIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION)

    from the

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 2007

    Author: Richard L. Scott

    Approved by: Robert McNab Thesis Advisor

    Sophal Ear Second Reader

    Douglas Porch Chairman, Department of National Security Affairs

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    ABSTRACT

    In this thesis I show that the casualties associated with warfare can be largely

    avoided. This includes combatant casualties, as well as noncombatant and friendly

    forces. The U.S. military is frequently tasked with deploying into foreign countries and

    performing duties that range from conventional combat operations to humanitarian relief

    and training host nationals. The politics of every deployment are complicated and

    invariably there will be some resistance, both domestically and internationally. People

    may feel victimized or marginalized and may demonstrate with protests, both peaceful

    and violent. How, then, may the use of non-lethal force be best applied in hostile

    situations in lieu of the “shout or shoot” approach commonly associated with military

    operations? Scientific advances in non-lethal technology may serve to curb violence

    while still allowing Soldiers and Marines to accomplish their missions.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    I. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 A. MOTIVATION ................................................................................................1 B. THESIS .............................................................................................................3 C. HISTORICAL CONTEXT .............................................................................5 D. CURRENT REQUIREMENTS AND CAPABILITIES...............................8 E. STRUCTURE OF THESIS.............................................................................9

    II. LITERATURE REVIEW .........................................................................................11 A. INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................11

    1. Strategic Policies ................................................................................12 2. Tactical Publications..........................................................................14 3. Commercial Publications ..................................................................18

    B. COIN PRINCIPLES AND IMPERATIVES...............................................21 C. LETHAL FORCE IN IRREGULAR WARFARE .....................................24 D. NON-LETHAL WEAPONS AND IRREGULAR WARFARE.................26 E. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................29

    III. CASE STUDIES.........................................................................................................31 A. INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................31 B. CHECKPOINT OPERATIONS...................................................................33 C. URBAN RIOTS..............................................................................................34 D. CROWD CONTROL.....................................................................................36 E. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................38

    IV. NLWS AND STABILITY OPERATIONS..............................................................41 A. INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................41 B. RISKS..............................................................................................................42

    1. Strategic Risks....................................................................................43 2. Operational Risks...............................................................................44 3. Tactical Risks .....................................................................................45

    C. BENEFITS......................................................................................................46 1. Strategic Benefits ...............................................................................46 2. Operational Benefits ..........................................................................47 3. Tactical Benefits .................................................................................48

    D. COSTS ............................................................................................................49 E. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................51

    V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................53 A. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................53 B. RECOMMENDATIONS...............................................................................54

    1. Strategic Recommendations..............................................................55 2. Operational Recommendations ............................