North Africa Egypt – (Ancient & Modern) Libya Tunisia Algeria Morocco

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    23-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • North Africa Egypt (Ancient & Modern) Libya Tunisia Algeria Morocco
  • Slide 2
  • Ancient Egypt Egypt is the gift of the Nile Nile is the longest river in the world, 4000 miles long It begins in the heart of Africa and runs north to the Mediterranean Northern Part is called Lower Egypt Southern Part is called Upper Egypt Floods each year, enriching soil around it Surplus of food that Egyptians could grow made Egypt prosperous
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  • NILE RIVER Served as a highway that enhanced transportation and communication
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  • EGYPT religion Egyptians were polytheistic 2 groups of gods= land and sun gods Creation Story beginning w/ Atum Sun was worshipped as the source of life Sun god = Atum or Re Eqyptian ruler was known as Son of Re
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  • Atum/ RE
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  • Ancient Egpyt Divided into three kingdoms Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom
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  • Old Kingdom
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  • Mummification process Giza pyramid=largest, built for King Khofu, covers 13 acres Great Sphinx in Giza=body of lion, head of pharaoh, believed to protect site
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  • Old Kingdom Menes created the first royal dynasty in Egypt around in 3100 b.c. Rulers became known as Pharaohs Lasted about 500 years Pharaohs had absolute power, assisted by family and then a large bureaucracy Vizier=2nd in power, in charge of bureaucracy and reported to the pharaoh Pyramids built during the O.K., served as tombs for pharaohs and families
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  • Middle Kingdom Considered to be the golden age Egypt expanded into Nubia trade reached Mesopotamia and Crete Pharaohs became known as the protectors of the people Invasion of the Hyksos [hik-sohs, -sos] (western asia) Overwhelmed Egyptians with chariots as they fought from donkey carts Egyptians learned to use bronze and horse drawn chariots from the Hyskos
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  • Hysksos Defeated the Egyptians With Bronze Weapons and Chariots
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  • New Kingdom During this period Egypt created an empire Pharaohs were really wealthy Hatshepsut [hat-shep-soot] =first female pharaoh Akhenaton ('k-nt'n, k-nt'n) tried to make Egypt monotheistic, only the sun god People thought that it would upset cosmic order and destroy Egypt Tutankhamen restored old gods and polytheism Akhenatons religious reforms caused upheavals that led Egypt to lose power
  • Slide 13
  • New Kingdom During this period Egypt created an empire Pharaohs were real wealthy Hatshepsut=first female pharaoh Akhenaton tried to make Egypt monotheistic, only the sun god People thought that it would upset cosmic order and destroy Egypt Tutankhamen restored old gods and polytheism Akhenatons religious reforms caused upheavals that led Egypt to lose power
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  • Temple of Hatshepsut
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  • New Kingdom Rames II (Great) regained some of the empire New invasions from the Sea Peoples eventually ended the Egyptian empire For a thousand years, Egypt was dominated by Libyans, Nubians, Persians, & Macedonians Cleopatra VII tried to reassert Egypt independence=led to Roman rule over Egypt
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  • Hieroglyphics Means priest carvings or sacred writings Uses pictures and abstract forms to write Used for writing in temples and tombs Took a long time to learn and do Hieratic (hahy-uh-rat-ik) script=simplified version of hieroglyphics
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  • Egypt/geography Borders the Mediterranean Sea, 3x size of New Mexico Mostly desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters Nile River is the worlds longest river & supplies 85% of Egypts water Suez Canal separates Egypt from the Sinai Peninsula, ships are able to pass from Mediterranean Sea to Red Sea
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  • Suez Canal
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  • Aswan High Dam
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  • History Last native dynasty fell in 341 b.c. to the Persians Arabs introduced Islam & Arabic language, 7 th century and ruled for next 6 centuries Mamluks took control about 1250 & continued to govern the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517 Britain seized control of Egypts government in 1882, but allegiance to Ottoman empire continued until 1914 Gained independence after WWII in 1952, when a group of army officers overthrew British supported King
  • Slide 27
  • The Quran: Holy Book Of Islam
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  • Culture & Government Is now a republic of Egypts people live in rural areas Most are farmers, raise only enough food to feed their families, best farmland is around Nile 94% = Muslim Speak Arabic Cairo = leading center for Muslim world Main resource = oil Tourism = major industry, ancient ruins Agriculture = main economic activity
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  • Fatimid Mosque in Cairo
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  • Libya Sahara covers 90% of land Desert with only a few oases Has no permanent rivers, but aquifers lie beneath the vast desert Poor soil & hot climate = Libya has to import of food supply Discovery of oil in 1959 brought great wealth Mixed Arab & Berber heritage/Berbers first known in NA 86% of people live on the Mediterranean coast
  • Slide 31
  • Sahara Desert
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  • Libya Practice Islam Speak Arabic 1969 Muammar al-Qaddhafi overthrew the king & became dictator For many years US has accused him of sponsoring & encouraging terrorism/ bombed family compound Recently swore to not participate in terrorism any longer
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  • Al-Qaddafhi
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  • Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 In 1988, terrorist bombed Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland US worked for many years proving Libyas involvement One Libyan was actually found guilty in an international court
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  • The Maghreb Means the land farthest west in Arabic Consists of Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco Given the name because it is the westernmost part of the Arabic speaking Muslim world
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  • Tunisia/geography North Africa smallest country, size of Georgia Atlas mountains = northwest South merges into Sahara desert Mild, rainy winters/Hot, dry summers = North Desert = South
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  • Tunisia/history Berbers were the first to settle the area Phoenicians from SW Asia founded the city of Carthage 2,800 years ago Carthage = center of powerful trading empire Carthage eventually lost battle with Romans for control of Mediterranean Sea Was the part of several Muslim empires Became independent of France in 1956
  • Slide 38
  • Phoenicians
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  • Ancient Carthage Ruins
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  • Tunisia/culture Mixture of Arab & Berber ancestry Speak Arabic Practice Islam Economic activities = farming, fishing, manufacturing Tourism is growing Tunis = capital
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  • Algeria Largest country in NA, 3.5x of Texas Algeria must import most of its food which is paid for by selling oil & natural gas French colony = 1834-1862 In 1954, Algerian Arabs rose up against French and won independence by 1962 Many Algerians speak French & Arabic Algiers = capital Today, Algeria is a republic with a strong president & legislature Since 1990s there have been many conflicts between government & Muslim political parties
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  • Algeria Widespread poverty exists today Many people have had to move to other countries to find work There is a civil war going on between the Muslims & the government that got its start from Muslims being jailed after an election
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  • Morocco Between Algeria & Western Sahara Mediterranean climate, more extreme in the interior Economy is based on agriculture, industry, & tourism Lead the World in exports of phosphate rock AD 700s, Arabs & Berbers from Morocco conquered Spain & developed a brilliant civilization until Christian rulers drove them out in the late 1400s Gained independence from France in 1956
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  • Straight of Gibraltar Separates Africa & Europe/ Morocco & Spain Only 9 miles between the separation
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  • Berbers Arabs
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  • Morocco Has constitutional monarchy/King/Queen is head of state but elected officials run the government Developed bicameral legislature in 1997 1970s, Morocco claimed Western Sahara, sparked a war between Morocco & a rebel group wanting independence for Sahara/ problem remains unsolved Most people live in coastal areas, some herd & farm in the foothills of the Atlas mountains Casablanca = largest city, Rabat = Capital
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  • Casablanca
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  • A Satellite View
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  • Africas Size # Second largest continent 11,700,000 sq. mi. # 10% of the worlds population. # 2 times the size of the U. S. 5000MILES5000MILES 4 6 0 0 M I L E S
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  • Bodies Of Water Nile River Congo River Zambezi River Niger River Orange River Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Red Sea L. Victoria L. Chad--> L. Tanganyika->
  • The Complete Topography Of AFRICA Nile River Congo River Zambezi River Niger River Orange River Limpopo River Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Red Sea L. Victoria L. Albert--> L. Chad--> L. Tanganyika->

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