On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) II Regulatory Update Mobile Source Control Division California Air Resources Board April 25, 2002 Sacramento, California

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  • On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) II Regulatory UpdateMobile Source Control Division California Air Resources BoardApril 25, 2002Sacramento, California

  • OBD II BackgroundAdopted in 1989 On every 1996 and newer vehicle.Monitors virtually every emission related componentIlluminates warning light and stores fault info for repair technicians

  • Status of OBD IIOn 100 million vehicles in the U.S. Over 3 trillion miles coveredFeedback indicates program is working

  • Chart1

    0.440.6

    0.270.5

    0.170.41

    1995

    2001

    Odometer miles

    %

    Percentage of Cars With High Mileage

    Sheet1

    19952001

    >100k44%60%

    >125k27%50%

    >150k17%41%

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • LEV II and OBD II ProgramsLEV II program targets near zero fleet emissions for useful life (120k miles) Certification and In-Use Compliance programs verify useful life standardsOBD II program targets high mileage vehicles beyond useful life

  • Reasons for Proposed ChangesKeep pace with technology Areas for improvementProper OBD II performance is critical for I/MStronger enforcement needed

  • OutlineTechnical requirements/revisionsRevisions affecting I/M and repair techniciansMalfunction thresholdsEnforcement strengthening

  • NOx Catalyst MonitoringCurrently, only HC conversion efficiency monitoredLEV II program requires 75% NOx reduction from LEV I programNOx conversion efficiency now needs to be monitored

  • NOx Catalyst MonitoringProposalPhase-in for LEV II vehicles2007 and subsequent model years 1.75 x HC or NOx standard (2.5x for SULEVs)2005 and 2006 model years3.5 x NOx standardWill refine existing catalyst monitoring approach

  • Cold Start Strategy and Secondary Air System MonitoringMost emissions occur at cold startMany emission control components and strategies affect catalyst warm-upPropose monitoring during warm-up 2006-2008 phase-in

  • Additional Technical RevisionsDiesel catalyst and particulate matter (PM) trap monitoringMisfire monitoringVariable valve timing (VVT) Most changes required for 2005 and newer vehicles.

  • OutlineTechnical requirements/revisionsRevisions affecting I/M and repair techniciansMalfunction thresholdsEnforcement strengthening

  • Standardization changesOBD II standardization requirementsScan tool communication, connector, fault codes, etc.Necessary in I/MHelp technicians make effective repairs

  • Changes to help I/M programsEPA requires OBD II system in state I/M programs Improvements include:Electronic VINReadiness statusConnector location

  • Communication ProtocolScan tools talk to vehicles via standardized protocolsController Area Network (CAN) protocolallowed in 2003 and required in 2008More data at faster ratesPhase-out of current protocolsHeavy-duty/medium duty communication protocol (J1939)

  • Verification of Standardized RequirementsTesting of production vehiclesVerify compliance with standardized features necessary for I/M testingRequired for 2005 and newer vehicles

  • OutlineTechnical requirements/revisionsRevisions affecting I/M and repair techniciansMalfunction thresholdsEnforcement strengthening

  • Monitoring ThresholdsMajor OBD II monitors calibrated to 1.5 x standardIndustry wants higher levels for LEV II program vehicles

  • Monitoring Thresholds (cont.)LEV II/ULEV II standards do not necessitate less stringent thresholdsProposed thresholds necessary to achieve LEV II emission benefitsProduction vehicles already meet requirementsFlexibility to revise thresholds if necessary

  • SULEV Monitoring ThresholdsProposed SULEV threshold of 2.5 x standard Accounts for current emission measurement technologyAllows same levels of individual component deterioration as ULEV IThree manufacturers selling SULEVs meeting these thresholds

  • NMOG Threshold

    NMOG two

    11.51.5

    11.51.5

    12.58.25

    Standard

    Staff Proposed Threshold

    Industry Threshold

    Emission Standard

    Threshold x Standard

    NOx

    11.51.5

    11.56.4285714286

    12.522.5

    Emission Standard

    Proposed Threshold

    Industry Threshold

    Emission Standard

    Threshold (x Standard)

    NOx Threshold

    Nox two

    0.30.450.45

    0.070.1050.45

    0.020.050.45

    Standard

    ARB g/mile standard

    Industry g/mile standard

    Emission Standard

    Threshold (x Standard)

    NOx Threshold

    Sheet1

    ARBIndustryBaselineARBIndustryARBIndustryBaselineARBIndustry

    NMOGthresholdthreshold??x Std??x StdNOxthresholdthreshold??x Std??x Std

    ULEV I0.0550.0830.0831.01.51.50.3000.4500.4501.01.51.5

    ULEV II0.0550.0830.0831.01.51.50.0700.1050.4501.01.56.4

    SULEV0.0100.0250.0831.02.58.30.0200.0500.4501.02.522.5

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • NOx Threshold

    NMOG two

    11.51.5

    11.51.5

    12.58.25

    Standard

    Proposed Threshold

    Industry Threshold

    Emission Standard

    Threshold (x Standard)

    NMOG Thresholds

    NOx

    11.51.5

    11.56.4285714286

    12.522.5

    Emission Standard

    Staff Proposed Threshold

    Industry Threshold

    Emission Standard

    Threshold x Standard

    Sheet1

    ARBIndustryBaselineARBIndustryARBIndustryBaselineARBIndustry

    NMOGthresholdthreshold??x Std??x StdNOxthresholdthreshold??x Std??x Std

    ULEV I0.0550.0830.0831.01.51.50.3000.4500.4501.01.51.5

    ULEV II0.0550.0830.0831.01.51.50.0700.1050.4501.01.56.4

    SULEV0.0100.0250.0831.02.58.30.0200.0500.4501.02.522.5

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Cost Effectiveness of ThresholdsProposed thresholds are cost-effective:~ $5 per pound for 120k-230k milesIncludes costs to consumers and the emission benefit Industrys proposed thresholds:$4.75 to $6.50 per poundnearly 9 tons per day fewer emission reductions

  • OutlineTechnical requirements/revisionsRevisions affecting I/M and repair techniciansMalfunction thresholdsEnforcement strengthening

  • OBD II-Specific EnforcementEnforcement testing since 1994 model yearEnforced under OBD II and tailpipe proceduresExisting procedures not adequate

  • OBD II Compliance and Enforcement Three Major ImprovementsIncrease in required testingStandardized method for measuring in-use performanceOBD II-specific enforcement procedures

  • Production Vehicle Evaluation-Monitoring RequirementsIdentify defects earlyEvery diagnostic testedTesting early in production

  • Production Vehicle Evaluation-Standardization RequirementsEnsure vehicles properly communicate OBD II informationDevelopment of Gold Standard test equipment

  • Monitoring FrequencyStandardize method to measure frequencySoftware tracks how often monitoring occursMinimum frequency equates to detection within two weeks

  • Enforcement RegulationSection 1968.5 is OBD II specific enforcement proceduresDetailed enforcement procedures to be followed by staffAddresses shortcomings of using tailpipe proceduresApplies to 2004 and subsequent model years

  • Enforcement Procedures/CriteriaEstablishes specific testing proceduresDefines sampling and testing proceduresDefines criteria for determining compliance Eliminates provision to offset OBD II non-compliance with over-compliance on tailpipe emissions

  • Enforcement -Remedial ActionCriteria to determine appropriate remedial actionRemedial action varies from nothing up to recall and finesMandatory recall if a major monitor is non-functional

  • SummaryLEV II program fleet has near zero emissions.Fleet must be maintained at near zero emissions for entire lifeProposed changes are feasible and necessaryProposed enforcement regulation necessary for an effective OBD II program

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