OBD II Workshop P roposed changes Mobile Source Control Division California Air Resources Board July 18, 2001 El Monte, California

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  • OBD II WorkshopProposed changesMobile Source Control Division California Air Resources BoardJuly 18, 2001El Monte, California

  • Discussion PointsNew technical requirementsCatalystMisfireEvaporative leak checkSecondary Air and Cold Start StrategyAir Conditioning systemVariable Valve TimingDORDiesel Catalyst and PM trap

  • Discussion PointsStandardization items for I/M and service techniciansDDV TestingProduction Vehicle TestingRate-based monitoringDeficienciesEnforcement Provisions

  • NOx Catalyst MonitoringCurrently, only HC conversion efficiency required to be monitoredHowever, recent tailpipe standard reductions primarily target NOx (e.g. LEV II program)Current data indicates NOx emissions can vary from < 1x to > 3x standard when HC conversion efficiency threshold is reached

  • NOx- NMOG vs std

    1.2544298246

    0.4

    0.52

    1.12

    0.6833333333

    0.12

    0.2866666667

    0.6566666667

    1.34

    1.45

    1.2333333333

    1.9111111111

    1.85

    0.5333333333

    0.68

    0

    0

    0.9666666667

    0.2666666667

    1.24

    1.8333333333

    0.8

    0.8633333333

    0.1583333333

    0.05

    0

    0

    1.1933333333

    0.9883333333

    2.25

    1.16

    1.9983333333

    1.4666666667

    0.1666666667

    2.5

    2.5666666667

    2.15

    0.596

    0.582

    2.362

    1.7933333333

    0

    0.9

    1.7366666667

    0.5

    1.9

    2.88

    0.8666666667

    1.5666666667

    0.6766666667

    1.6666666667

    3.4

    NOX/Std

    NMOG/Std

    NOx/Std

    DDV data with "threshold" NMOG catalyst

    NMOG-NOx vs baseline

    0

    0

    0

    0

    1.1134020619

    -0.1428571429

    0.0886075949

    1.3452380952

    0

    2.625

    0.85

    0

    0

    1.6666666667

    0

    2.3716216216

    1.5494071146

    0

    0

    0.7714285714

    1.3913043478

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    2.3502824859

    2.75

    1.5217391304

    5.6243093923

    4.8278145695

    0

    6.5

    5.4166666667

    6.3714285714

    2.3111111111

    1.3095238095

    0

    0

    0

    0

    19.0384615385

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    NMOG Multiple

    NOx Multiple

    Threshold Catalyst NOx/NMOG Correlation

    catalyst data

    Catalyst DataBaseline Data

    ManufacturerMYEngine FamilyModelStdCat MonNMHC/NMOGCONOXNMOG StdNOX StdNMOG/StdNOX/StdNMHC/NMOGCONOXNMOG % IncreaseNOx % IncreaseComment

    BMW99XBMXV02.8LEVLEV0.121.340.440.090.31.31.30.0000.000

    BMW0YBMXV05.4LEVLEV2.5xstd+4k0.1742.760.120.090.31.90.40.0000.000

    DaimlerChrysler98LEV/LDT20.1481.790.260.130.51.10.50.0000.000

    DaimlerChrysler99Grand CherokeeLEV/LDT22.5xstd+4k0.2793.370.560.130.52.11.10.0000.000

    DaimlerChrysler0NeonULEV1.75xstd0.0871.2820.2050.0550.31.60.70.0510.4840.0970.7061.113

    DaimlerChrysler11CRXT0242240Grand CherokeeULEV/LDT21.75xstd0.0451.250.060.130.50.30.10.0380.5300.0700.184-0.143

    Daewoo99XDWXV02.0D02LEV0.0691.4740.0860.090.30.80.30.0620.8310.0790.1200.089Baseline 100k cert values

    Daewoo0LEV0.0710.4710.1970.090.30.80.70.0480.3810.0840.4791.345

    Ford97VFM2.0V8G2EKEscortTLEV0.1775.260.8040.1560.61.11.30.0000.000ARB test

    Ford11FMXT04.6PF6F-150LEV/MDV21.75xstd0.3013.730.870.230.61.31.50.0810.5200.2402.6982.625

    GM99XGMXV03.1043LEV1.75xstd0.1423.740.370.090.31.61.20.0531.0000.2001.6790.850Baseline 100k cert values

    GM98LEVMDV32.5xstd+4k0.3428.431.720.280.91.21.90.0000.000

    GM97VGM1.9VJG2JKTLEV2.0xstd+4k0.2734.851.110.1560.61.81.90.0000.000

    Honda98WHNXV02.3PL4AccordULEV1.75xstd0.061.890.160.0550.31.10.50.0280.3000.0601.1431.667Baseline 100k cert values

    Honda99XHNXT03.5EA3OdysseyLEV/LDT21.75xstd0.1111.710.340.130.50.90.70.0000.000LDT2?

    Isuzu11SZXT02.22LK0.091.950.4990.00.00.0770.7500.1480.1762.372

    Isuzu22SZXT03.52KK0.09734.120.6450.00.00.0901.7400.2530.0841.549

    Jaguar11JCXV04.0BN4LEV2.5xstd+4k0.1681.760.290.090.31.91.00.0000.000

    Kia0LEV0.090.630.080.090.31.00.30.0000.000

    Mazda0MPVLEV/LDT21.75xstd0.2121.530.620.130.51.61.20.1091.0800.3500.9450.771

    Mazda99ProtgULEV3.0xstd+4k0.1710.990.550.0550.33.11.80.0480.8400.2302.5631.391

    Mazda1626ULEV3.0xstd+4k0.1570.760.240.0550.32.90.80.0420.7600.2402.7380.000

    Mercedes98WMBXV03.2GNBLEV1.75xstd0.1371.530.2590.090.31.50.90.0000.000

    Mercedes99XMBXT04.3GNBLEV/MDV22.5xstd+4k0.2472.780.0950.230.61.10.20.0000.000

    Mercedes11MBXT03.21BLULEV/MDV21.75xstd0.1252.220.030.1430.60.90.10.0000.000

    Mitsubishi99DiamanteLEV2.5xstd+4k0.182n/an/a0.092.00.00.0000.000

    Mitsubishi11DSXV02.4GNGULEV1.75xstd0.061n/an/a0.0551.10.00.0000.000

    Nissan97VNS1.6VJG3EKSentraLEV2.5xstd+4k0.1330.8740.3580.090.31.51.20.0000.000ARB test

    Nissan99XNSXV03.026ATLEV1.75xstd0.2461.530.5930.1560.61.61.00.1021.0000.1771.4122.350

    Nissan0YNSXV01.85BASentra CASULEV1.75xstd0.01140.50.0450.010.021.12.30.0050.1100.0121.1922.750

    Nissan11NSXT03.5C7AQX4LEV/LDT21.75xstd0.09611.460.580.130.50.71.20.0501.1100.2300.9381.522

    Porsche99XPRXV03.4996911Tier 10.4755.4631.1990.310.61.52.00.0510.6760.1818.3145.624ARB Test

    Porsche99XPRXV03.4996911Tier 10.5284.280.880.310.61.71.50.0920.6220.1514.7394.828

    Porsche11PRXV03.6TUR911 TurboLEV0.1292.60.050.090.31.40.20.0000.000

    Subaru99XFJXV02.2FEFLEV0.1783.90.750.090.32.02.50.0610.7100.1001.9186.500

    Subaru0YFJXV02.5JEHLegacyLEV1.75xstd0.1413.380.770.090.31.62.60.0480.8500.1201.9385.417

    Suzuki98WSKXV1.59TNSEsteemTLEV2.0xstd+4k ??0.2633.061.290.1560.61.72.20.1071.5580.1751.4586.371

    Suzuki0YSKXT2.00LMAVitaraLEV0.1220.6570.2980.130.50.90.60.0520.2010.0901.3462.311

    Suzuki11SKXT2.49LC1Grand VitaraLEV/LDT2 ??0.1332.7060.2910.130.51.00.60.0690.8280.1260.9281.310

    Toyota99XTYXT03.4GXStruckLEV/LDT21.75xstd0.1751.991.1810.130.51.32.40.0000.000

    Toyota97VTY2.2VJG3GKCamryLEV2.5xstd+4k??0.1782.090.5380.090.32.01.80.0000.000

    Toyota0YTYXV02.2JJBULEV1.75xstd0.093n/an/a0.0551.70.00.0000.000

    Toyota11TYXV01.5LJ1SULEV5.0 x std. ??0.02730.970.0180.010.022.70.90.0000.000Is the NMOG data correct?

    Volvo98XVVXV2.9EVATier 10.2374.7961.0420.310.60.81.70.1371.9880.0520.73019.038ARB test

    Volvo97VVV2.4VJGKEKTLEV2.0xstd+4k0.1362.040.30.1560.60.90.50.0000.000

    Volvo98WVVXV2.43TPFTLEV2.0xstd+4k0.2173.951.140.1560.61.41.90.0000.000

    Volvo11VVXV02.43U5NULEV1.75xstd0.0742.1840.8640.0550.31.32.90.0000.000

    VW99XVWXV02.0227Beetle, Golf, JettaLEV0.1672.960.260.090.31.90.90.0000.000

    VW98WVWXV02.0226New BeetleTLEV0.2044.260.940.1560.61.31.60.0000.000

    VW98WVWXV02.0226New BeetleTLEV0.1323.0840.4060.1560.60.80.70.0000.000ARB test

    VW0YADXV02.7333TLEV1.75xstd0.1420.6610.1560.60.91.70.0000.000

    VW11ADXV01.8342ULEV3.0xstd+4k0.1653.731.020.0550.33.03.40.0000.000

    Average1.41.2

    &COBD II Catalyst DDV Data

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • NOx Catalyst MonitoringOriginal ProposalStaff proposal would require 2007 and subsequent LEV II program vehicles to indicate a catalyst malfunction before HC or NOx conversion efficiency reaches 1.75x standard (2.5x for SULEVs)2005 and 2006 LEV II program vehicles would use an interim threshold of 3.5x NOx standardExpect most manufacturers to meet requirement with refinement of existing oxygen storage monitoring method

  • NOx Catalyst MonitoringRevised ProposalStaff proposal would require 2007 and subsequent LEV II program vehicles to indicate a catalyst malfunction before HC or NOx conversion efficiency reaches 1.75x standard (2.5x for SULEVs)30% of 2005 and 60% of 2006 LEV II program vehicles would use an interim threshold of 3.5x NOx standardExpect most manufacturers to meet requirement with refinement of existing oxygen storage monitoring method

  • Other Catalyst ChangesChanges would require aging of both monitored and unmonitored catalysts when developing threshold catalyst calibrations on 2005 and subsequent LEV II program vehicles not using fuel shut-off during misfireChanges would allow monitored catalyst volume to have lower than 50% conversion efficiency if packaged/replaced with additional catalyst volume that, in total, exceeds 50% conversion efficiency

  • Misfire MonitoringChanges would identify more specifically what type of disablements are generally approved by ARBChanges would identify what type of disablements will no longer be allowed in 2005 and subsequent model years(A/C compressor cycling, A/T gear shifts, idle to off-idle transitions, load or speed transients less severe than US06 cycle, etc.)

  • Misfire Monitoring (cont.)Clarify for 2005 and subsequent vehicles, conditions when individual vs. multiple cylinder fault codes should be storedAllow disablement at engine start for no longer than 2 crankshaft revolutions after meeting the engine start definitionSet minimums of 1% and 5% for FTP and catalyst damage misfire levels, respectivelyAllow down to 75% probability of detection during cold start strategy operation

  • Evaporative System MonitoringCurrently, purge valve functional check, 0.040 leak detection, and 0.020 leak detection required on all 2003 model year vehiclesEngine-off diagnostics that do not meet a conventional two-in-a-row definition not accounted for very well.

  • Evaporative System Monitoring (cont.)Proposal would more explicitly allow non-conventional (e.g., engine-off) diagnosticsProposal would provide further specification on the shape of the orificeIntent of proposal to allow manufacturers with frequent 0.020 monitors to conduct gross leak (>0.090) in lieu of 0.040 monitoring

  • Evaporative System Monitoring (cont.)Regarding frequency of 0.020 monitor, many manufacturers have made tremendous improvements from the 2000 to 2002 model yearWhile very restrictive enable conditions were originally necessary, further refinements now appear to allow much broader conditionsAccordingly, proposal does not account for as severely constrained monitoring conditions as originally adopted in 1996

  • Evaporative System Monitoring (cont.)Proposal:Detect 0.040 in two weeksDetect 0.020 in three weeksPerform 0.090 in lieu of 0.040 if and only if:Detect 0.020 in two weeksDetect 0.090 in one week

  • Secondary Air and Cold Start Strategy MonitoringVast majority of emissions occur at cold startMany emission control components and strategies focused on accelerating catalyst warm-upCurrently, these components are generally monitored for proper performance only after the vehicle is warmed-up

  • Secondary Air SystemOriginal ProposalChanges would require 2007 and subsequent LEV II program vehicles to monitor the secondary air flow rate during cold start for malfunctions that cause emissions to exceed 1.5x standard (2.5x for SULEV)2005 and 2006 LEV II program vehicles would be required to perform a functional check (e.g., flow or no flow) during cold start and a 1.5x standard flow rate check later in the same driving cycleMost likely monitoring method appears to use a wide-range A/F sensor (in lieu of a conventional O2 sensor)

  • Secondary Air SystemRevised ProposalChanges would require 2007 2008 and subsequent LEV II program vehicles to monitor the secondary air flow rate during cold start for malfunctions that cause emissions to exceed 1.5x standard (2.5x for SULEV)2005 and 2006 and 2007 LEV II program vehicles would be required to perform a functional check (e.g., flow or no flow) during cold start and a 1.5x standard flow rate check later in the same driving cycle

  • Cold Start Strategy MonitoringOriginal ProposalChanges would require 2005 and subsequent LEV II program vehicles to monitor the key control and feedback parameters during cold start for malfunctions that cause emissions to exceed 1.5x standard (2.5x for SULEV)Most likely monitored parameters are engine speed, idle air mass flow, and commanded spark timing

  • Cold Start Strategy MonitoringRevised ProposalChanges would require 2005 and subsequent LEV II program 30/60/100% in 2006/07/08 vehicles to monitor the key control and feedback parameters during cold start for malfunctions that cause emissions to exceed 1.5x standard (2.5x for SULEV)

  • Cold Start Strategy Monitoring (cont.)Only requires malfunction detection when a single component malfunction or deterioration can cause emissions to exceed 1.5x standard (as opposed to a total system monitor).Allows manufacturers to calibrate to 1.5x standard on a representative vehicle and carry-over the thresholds to other vehicles (reducing calibration burden).

  • Air Conditioning System Component MonitoringCurrently, all electronic powertrain components required to be monitored under comprehensive componentsSome are concerned this may currently include some A/C componentsIn general, staff does not believe it should be necessary to monitor A/C components under the OBD II requirements

  • Air Conditioning System Component Monitoring (cont.)Proposal would exclude electronic A/C components from monitoring unless:Failure causes emissions to exceed 1.5x applicable standard (FTP for A/C physically off malfunctions, SC03 for A/C physically on malfunctions), orFailure effectively disables any other OBD II monitorBased on experience to date, it appears unlikely that any A/C system components will require monitoring30/60/100% phase-in in 2006/07/08 vehicles

  • Variable Valve Timing (VVT) System MonitoringIncreasing trend in industry to use some form of VVT system for improved performance without emission increaseEssentially performs as an EGR systemCurrently, the individual VVT components are monitored but the overall system performance is not monitored to a tailpipe emission level

  • Variable Valve Timing (VVT) ProposalChanges would require 2005 and subsequent LEV II program vehicles to monitor system performance to 1.5x standards (2.5x SULEV)Position errors and slow response malfunctions would need to be detectedMost systems already monitored for these failure modes but may need to be recalibrated to meet the emission thresholds

  • Direct Ozone Reduction (DOR)System MonitoringSome new emission reduction technologies have evolved that directly reduce ozoneExamples include specially coated radiators, etc. (e.g., PremAir)Requires unique solution because component does not directly affect vehicle tailpipe or evaporative emissions nor any other OBD II system monitors

  • Direct Ozone Reduction (DOR)System Monitoring (cont.)CARB policy was formalized in MAC No. 99-06 which outlined emission credits and monitoring requirementsAssigns different levels of emission credit (or offset) depending on monitoring capability (i.e., functional vs. performance)Optical, resistance, and ozone sensor monitoring technologies are fairly far into development

  • Direct Ozone Reduction (DOR)System Monitoring (cont.)Changes would simply incorporate MAC policy officially into regulationWould also allow half-credit for 2003 and 2004 without any monitoringUniqueness of component (e.g., deterioration does not affect tailpipe/evaporative emissions or other monitors) merits special handlingOffset would also be carried over to other HC-based standards (e.g., 1.5x HC std + offset)

  • Monitoring ThresholdsMany OBD II monitors calibrated to 1.5x FTP emission levelsAs the industry transitions to lower emission levels in the LEV II program, some have questioned the need for revisions to the 1.5x threshold

  • Monitoring Thresholds (cont.)Based on systems certified to date, staff does not believe LEV II and ULEV II standards necessitate special thresholdsLEV II/ULEV II have identical HC and CO standards as LEV I/ULEV I and only have lower NOxNOx is generally only the limiting pollutant for EGR, fuel system, and potentially O2 sensor responseProposed regulation does, however, retain flexibility to revise the thresholds if later found to be necessary

  • SULEV Monitoring ThresholdsProposed revisions do increase the threshold for SULEV vehicles to 2.5x standard in lieu of 1.5x standardAccounts for increased uncertainty of todays em...