One Health & Environmental Literacy

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One Health & Environmental Literacy. Alison Robbins, MS, DVM Tufts Center for Conservation Medicine Tufts Environmental Literacy Institute May 20, 2013. Overview of One Health. Frame the subject of one health through a review of global assessments of ecosystem health and human health - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<p>Nipah Virus a case study in conservation medicine</p> <p>One Health &amp; Environmental LiteracyAlison Robbins, MS, DVMTufts Center for Conservation MedicineTufts Environmental Literacy InstituteMay 20, 20131Overview of One HealthFrame the subject of one health through a review of global assessments of ecosystem health and human healthReview definitions and prioritiesReview concepts of ecosystem services and planetary boundaries Anthropocene MEA, MDG, Sustainability Development Goals</p> <p>One HealthWhat is it?</p> <p>Recognition that human health,animal health and ecosystem health are inextricably linked</p> <p>Slide Courtesy G. KaufmanOne Health </p> <p>One Health?Slide Courtesy G. Kaufman4What distinguishes conservation medicine as a one health discipline?There are many ways to approach the complex problems embodied in a one health paradigm. Conservation medicine explores these circles and relationships with an emphasis on conservation challenges, a mission to derive sustainable solutions and an ultimate goal of protecting biodiversity and the ecosystems essential to animal and human health. </p> <p>Many Competing TermsGlobal HealthEcohealthOne HealthPublic HealthConservation Medicine</p> <p>Global Health and EcohealthGlobal health- a study and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity inhealth for allpeople worldwide(Wikipedia)-measures health outcomesEcohealth-An emerging field of study researching how changes in the earthsecosystemsaffect human health focusing on participation, gender and social equity, systems thinking, and research to actionDALY disability adjusted life years6One Health Initiative -AVMAThe One Health concept is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment.</p> <p> Medicine @ TuftsConservation medicine focuses on health relationships occurring at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment, and seeks to develop and apply health management practices, policies and programs that sustain biodiversity and protect the ecosystems essential to animal and human health.</p> <p>Slide Courtesy G. Kaufman8One Health</p> <p>We dont all have the same prioritiesECOSYSTEM HEALTH#1 Environmental health#2 Human health#3 Animal healthCONSERVATION MEDICINE#1 Wildlife health #2 Environmental health#3 Human healthPUBLIC HEALTH#1 Human health #2 Animal health #3 Environmental healthSlide Courtesy G. Kaufman9Global Health AssessmentEnvironmental HealthMillennium Ecosystem AssessmentLinks ecosystem health to attaining human development goals</p> <p>Animal HealthLivestock and agricultureBiological Diversity -MEAWildlifeHuman HealthMillennium Development Goals10Indicators of GlobalHuman HealthIndicators of human well being and health across the planet Infant and child mortality, Extreme hungerAccess to education, Millennium Development Goals Eight international development goals established in 2000 by the Millennium summit at the United NationsEffort to achieve these goals across globe by 2015</p> <p>United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)</p> <p> extreme poverty and hunger2. Achieve universal primary education3. Promote gender equality and empower women4. Reduce child mortality rate5. Improve maternal health6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases7. Ensure environmental sustainability8. Develop a global partnership for development Ecosystem Assessment Findings Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005)2005 report synthesizing 1000 scientists analysis of state of the earths ecosystemsReport concludes that human activity has a large and escalating impact world ecosystems Ecosystem life support system and ecosystem services are in serious decline and at risk to non-linear change (tipping points)Unless addressed will substantially effect human well being and all life ServicesLife and humankind depend on resources and processes that are supplied by ecosystems and are grouped into 4 broad categories:Regulating ServicesSupporting ServicesProvisioning ServicesCultural ServicesMEA 2005Constituents ofHuman Well BeingConsequences of ecosystem change effect human well-being; 4 broad categories:SecurityBasic Material for Good lifeHealthGood Social RelationsFreedom of Choice and Actions- opportunity to be and to achieve what an individual values doing and being</p> <p>MEA 2005</p> <p>MEA 2005</p> <p>MEA 2005</p> <p>MA FrameworkDirect DriversIndirect DriversEcosystemServicesHuman Well-beingDirect Drivers of ChangeChanges in land use Species introduction or removalTechnology adaptation and useExternal inputs (e.g., irrigation) Resource consumptionClimate changeNatural physical and biological drivers (e.g., volcanoes)</p> <p>Indirect Drivers of ChangeDemographicEconomic (globalization, trade, market and policy framework)Sociopolitical (governance and institutional framework)Science and TechnologyCultural and ReligiousHuman Well-being and Poverty ReductionBasic material for a good lifeHealthGood Social RelationsSecurityFreedom of choice and action</p> <p>Unprecedented change in structure and function of ecosystemsMore land was converted to cropland in the 30 years after 1950 than in the 150 years between 1700 and 1850.Cultivated Systems in 2000 cover 25% of Earths terrestrial surface(Defined as areas where at least 30% of the landscape is in croplands, shifting cultivation, confined livestock production, or freshwater aquaculture)</p> <p>Changes to ecosystems have provided substantial benefitsFood production has more than doubled since 1960Food production per capita has grownFood price has fallen</p> <p>21Over the past 40 years, globally, intensification of cultivated systems has been the primary source (almost 80%) of increased output. But some countries, predominantly found in Sub-Saharan Africa, have had persistently low levels of productivity, and continue to rely on expansion of cultivated area. in sub-Saharan Africa, however, yield increases accounted for only 34% of growth in production Unprecedented change: Ecosystems </p> <p>Gulf of Mexico nutrient runoff commons.wikimedia.org22most water use (70% worldwide) is for agriculture.</p> <p>Unprecedented Ecosystem Change (MEA 2005)Amount of water in reservoirs quadrupled since 1960Withdrawals from rivers and lakes doubled since 1960Intercepted Continental Runoff: 3-6 times as much water in reservoirs as in natural rivers</p> <p> Three Gorges dam China www.industrytap.comUnprecedented Ecosystem Change (MEA 2005)20% of the worlds coral reefs were lost and 20% degraded in the last several decades</p> <p></p> <p>Significant and largely irreversible Biodiversity LossThreatened with extinction: 30% amphibians, 12% birds, 23% Mammals, 3% plants. 6th extinctions on order of mass extinctions </p> <p>25Ecosystem Services ChangesProvisioning service increasesCrop productionLivestockAquacultureProvisioning decreaseCapture fisheriesGenetic resourcesBiochemicals/medicineFresh water</p> <p>Regulating and cultural services -reductionsAir quality regulationClimate regulation localErosionpollination</p> <p>Degradation of ecosystem services is a significant barrier to achievement of MDGsMany of the regions facing the greatest challenges in achieving the 2015 targets coincide with regions facing the greatest problems of ecosystem degradation Although socioeconomic factors will play a primary role in achieving many of the MDGs, targets are unlikely to be met without improvement in ecosystem management for goals such as: Poverty ReductionHungerAll four MA scenarios project progress but at rates far slower than needed to attain the MDG target. The improvements are slowest in the regions in which the problems are greatest: South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa Child mortalityThree of the MA scenarios project reductions in child undernourishment of between 10% and 60% but undernourishment increases by 10% in one. DiseaseProgress toward this Goal is achieved in three scenarios, but in one scenario the health and social conditions for the North and South further diverge, exacerbating health problems in many low-income regionsEnvironmental Sustainability including access to water27Bullet not included for poverty because previous slides dealt with this. Not included for environmental sustainability since by definition this cannot be achieved while most ecosystem services are being degraded.</p> <p>Last 60 years the Great acceleration - 24 Indicators: Cars, Telephones, human population, CO2, NO2, Methane, Ozone depletion, Rainforest loss, fisheries overexploitation, natural disasters, Biodiversity loss.Anthropocene is thought to start at beginning of industrial revolution (1780 begins) 1820 -1840.28Anthropocene EpochEpoch- Formal time boundary often marked upheavals in Earth history through fossil recordScale of human driven environmental changeMega citiesChemical and biological effectsRates of biological extinctions 100 1000x equivalent to earths 6th extinctionBeginning with the industrial revolution within Epoch of HoloceneAnthropocene Epoch</p> <p>NASAPlanetary Boundaries </p> <p>Rockstrom et al, Science 2009 Stockholm Resilience.orgHow do we change course?First a recognition thatBusiness as usual projected scenarios are grimplanetary boundaries can provide a framework for safe operating zonesUnique moment in time with world population, energy and food production, Global health advances and technology Temperature rises 4 C -Sea level rise of 15 feet, agricultural failure, 100 year storms every 3 years</p> <p>32How do we change course?Change is difficult </p> <p>With most aspects of change a shift of attitude is needed</p> <p>A paradigm shift - One Health agendaTemperature rises 4 C -Sea level rise of 15 feet, agricultural failure, 100 year storms every 3 years</p> <p>33Paradigm Shift-New paradigm for human endeavors</p> <p>Innovation coupled with the new mindset lead to transformative actions and outcomes</p> <p>Collaboration on a global scale</p> <p>Sustainable Development Goals</p> <p>linking poverty eradication to protection of Earths life support systems</p> <p>Sustainable development goals for people and planet. Nature, 495: 305-307. (21 March 2013)Sustainable development goals for people and planetNatureSustainable development goals for people and planet Griggs, Mark Stafford-Smith, Owen Gaffney, Johan Rockstrm, Marcus C. hman, Priya Shyamsundar, Will Steffen, Gisbert Glaser, Norichika Kanie, and Ian Noble.(2013)Sustainable development goals for people and planet.Nature, 495: 305-307. (21 March 2013)news |In the wake of last weeks meetings at the UN on the definition of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a group of international scientists have published a call in the journal Nature (21 March 2013) arguing for a set of six SDGs that link poverty eradication to protection of Earths life support. The researchers suggest that in the face of increasing pressure on the planets ability to support life, adherence to outdated definitions of sustainable development threaten to reverse progress made in developing countries over past decades.</p> <p>35</p> <p>Griggs et al 2013: Nature 495; 305-307 This is our road map and challenge as educators, researchers, and policy makers Planetary stability must be integrated with United Nations targets to fight poverty and secure human well-being, argue David Griggs and colleagues. From Nature 2 1 M A R C H 2 0 1 3 | VO L 4 9 5 | N AT U R E | 3 0 5 Griggs et al.36Millennium Sustainability GoalsGrigg et al -Integrate into Millennium Development goals for human healthParadigm shift for all governments across developed and undeveloped worldRoad map for educators and OH practitioners: Healthy and productive ecosystemsEnvironmental literacy</p> <p>TELI -A Step Forward TogetherEducate the educators- knowledge gaps in environmental health are vastWork with and inform global leadersBreakdown social barriers to sharing information and changing practicesLearn from successes MDG, share experiences</p> <p>Take the next step forward- Begin to realize the extraordinary potential of interdisciplinary collaboration in Global One HealthTELI -A Step Forward TogetherGretchen KaufmanAntje DanielsonJoann LindenmeyerMark PokrasMike McGuillHelen AmuguniFlo TsengElena Nauvoma Bryan WindmillerMCM Students</p> <p>Thanks to TuftsOne Health CommunityMasters in Conservation Medicine ProgramTufts Institute for the EnvironmentFletcher School Center for International Environmental Research and Policy (CIERP)Tufts Programs in Public HealthFreidman School of NutritionDept. of Infectious Disease and Global HealthUSAID RESPOND project- capacity building</p>


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