Overview of catabolic pathways. Catabolism of glucose via glycolysis and the citric acid cycle NADH, FADH 2 NADH

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  • Overview of catabolic pathways
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  • Catabolism of glucose via glycolysis and the citric acid cycle NADH, FADH 2 NADH
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  • Net reaction of glycolysis Two molecules of ATP are produced Two molecules of NAD + are reduced to NADH Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 NAD + + 2 P i 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H + + 2 H 2 O Converts: 1 glucose 2 pyruvate +
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  • Glycolysis can be divided into two stages Hexose stage: 2 ATP are consumed per glucose Triose stage: 4 ATP are produced per glucose Net: 2 ATP produced per glucose x2
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  • Fig 11.2 Transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to glucose enzyme: hexokinase Isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate enzyme: glucose 6-phosphate isomerase 1 2
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  • Transfer of a second phosphoryl group from ATP to fructose 6-phosphate enzyme: phosphofructokinase-1 Carbon 3 Carbon 4 bond cleavage, yielding two triose phosphates enzyme: aldolase 3 4
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  • Enzyme 1. Hexokinase Transfers the -phosphoryl of ATP to glucose C-6 oxygen to generate glucose 6-phosphate Mechanism: attack of C-6 hydroxyl oxygen of glucose on the -phosphorous of MgATP 2- displacing MgADP - Fig 11.3
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  • 2. Glucose 6-Phosphate Isomerase Converts glucose 6-phosphate (an aldose) to fructose 6-phosphate (a ketose) Enzyme converts glucose 6-phosphate to open chain form in the active site Fig 11.4
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  • 3. Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) Catalyzes transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to the C-1 hydroxyl group of fructose 6-phosphate to form fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP) PFK-1 is metabolically irreversible and a critical regulatory point for glycolysis in most cells (PFK-1 is the first committed step of glycolysis)
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  • 4. Aldolase Aldolase cleaves the hexose fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into two triose phosphates: glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
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  • 5. Triose Phosphate Isomerase Conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
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  • Fig 11.6 Fate of carbon atoms from hexose stage to triose stage
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  • 6. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3BPG) Molecule of NAD + is reduced to NADH
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  • Box 11.2 Arsenate (AsO 4 3- ) poisoning Arsenate can replace P i as a substrate for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase Arseno analog which forms is unstable
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  • 7. Phosphoglycerate Kinase Transfer of phosphoryl group from the energy-rich 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP yields ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate Uses uses the high-energy phosphate of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to form ATP from ADP
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  • 8. Phosphoglycerate Mutase Catalyzes transfer of a phosphoryl group from one part of a substrate molecule to another Reaction occurs without input of ATP energy
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  • 9. Enolase: 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) Elimination of water (dehydration) yields PEP PEP has a very high phosphoryl group transfer potential because it exists in its unstable enol form
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  • 10. Pyruvate Kinase Metabolically irreversible reaction
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  • Fates of pyruvate For centuries, bakeries and breweries have exploited the conversion of glucose to ethanol and CO 2 by glycolysis in yeast
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  • Metabolism of Pyruvate 1. Aerobic conditions: pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle for further oxidation 2. Anaerobic conditions (microorganisms): pyruvate is converted to ethanol 3. Anaerobic conditions (muscles, red blood cells): pyruvate is converted to lactate
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  • Fig 11.10 Fates of pyruvate
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  • Fig 11.11 Anaerobic conversion of pyruvate to ethanol (yeast - anaerobic) Two enzymes required: (1) Pyruvate decarboxylase (2) Alcohol dehydrogenase
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  • Reduction of Pyruvate to Lactate (muscles - anaerobic) Muscles lack pyruvate dehydrogenase and cannot produce ethanol from pyruvate Muscle lactate dehydrogenase converts pyruvate to lactate This reaction regenerates NAD + for use by glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate dehydrogenase in glycolysis Lactate formed in skeletal muscles during exercise is transported to the liver Liver lactate dehydrogenase can reconvert lactate to pyruvate Lactic acidosis can result from insufficient oxygen (an increase in lactic acid and decrease in blood pH)
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  • Reduction of pyruvate to lactate Glucose + 2 P i 2- + 2 ADP 3- 2 Lactate - + 2 ATP 4- + 2 H 2 O
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  • Metabolically Irreversible Steps of Glycolysis Enzymes not reversible: Reaction 1 - hexokinase Reaction 3 - phosphofructokinase Reaction 10 - pyruvate kinase These steps are metabolically irreversible, and these enzymes are regulated All other steps of glycolysis are near equilibrium in cells and not regulated
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  • Regulation of Glycolysis 1. When ATP is needed, glycolysis is activated Inhibition of phosphofructokinase-1 is relieved. Pyruvate kinase is activated. 2. When ATP levels are sufficient, glycolysis activity decreases Phosphofructokinase-1 is inhibited. Hexokinase is inhibited.
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  • Fig 11.13 Glucose transport into the cell
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  • Fig 11.14 Regulation of glucose transport Glucose uptake into skeletal and heart muscle and adipocytes by GLUT 4 is stimulated by insulin
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  • Regulation of Hexokinase Hexokinase reaction is metabolically irreversible Glucose 6-phosphate (product) levels increase when glycolysis is inhibited at sites further along in the pathway Glucose 6-phosphate inhibits hexokinase.
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  • Regulation of Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) ATP is a substrate and an allosteric inhibitor of PFK-1 High concentrations of ADP and AMP allosterically activate PFK-1 by relieving the ATP inhibition. Elevated levels of citrate (indicate ample substrates for citric acid cycle) also inhibit Phospofructokinase-1
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  • Regulation of PFK-1 by Fructose 2,6- bisphosphate (F2,6BP) Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is formed from Fructose 6-phosphate by the enzyme phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2) Fig 11.17 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
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  • Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1135 Formation and hydrolysis of Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
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  • Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1136 Fig. 11.18 Effect of glucagon on liver glycolysis
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  • Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1137 Regulation of Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Pyruvate Kinase is allosterically activated by Fructose 1,6- bisphosphate, and inhibited by ATP The hormone glucagon stimulates protein kinase A, which phosphorylates Pyruvate Kinase, converting it to a less active form.
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  • Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1138 Other Sugars Can Enter Glycolysis Glucose is the main metabolic fuel in most organisms Other sugars convert to glycolytic intermediates Fructose and sucrose (contains fructose) are major sweeteners in many foods and beverages Galactose from milk lactose (a disaccharide) Mannose from dietary polysaccharides, glycoproteins
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  • Fructose Is Converted to Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate
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  • Galactose is Converted to Glucose 1-Phosphate Fig 11.22
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  • Mannose is Converted to Fructose 6-Phosphate
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  • Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1143 Formation of 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate in Red Blood Cells 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (2,3BPG) allosterically regulates hemoglobin oxygenation (red blood cells) Erythrocytes contain bisphosphoglycerate mutase which forms 2,3BPG from 1,3BPG In red blood cells about 20% of the glycolytic flux is diverted for the production of the important oxygen regulator 2,3BPG
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  • Fig 11.24 Formation of 2,3BPG in red blood cells
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  • Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1145 Feedback inhibition Product of a pathway controls the rate of its own synthesis by inhibiting an enzyme catalyzing an early step Feed-forward activation Metabolite early in the pathway activates an enzyme further down the pathway

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