Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 Citric Acid Cycle C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP Glycolysis Bridging Rx. OP ADP O 2 Metabolic Mainstreet

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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 Citric Acid Cycle C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP Glycolysis Bridging Rx. OP ADP O 2 Metabolic Mainstreet
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP Glycolysis Bridging Rx. OP ADP O 2 Metabolic Mainstreet NAD + NADH Aerobic ~ 36 ATP Glycerol phosphate shuttle Lactate Anaerobic 2 ATP LDH Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP Glycolysis Bridging Rx. OP ADP O 2 Glycogen Metabolism liver & muscle Glycogen Glycogenolysis fasting state glucagon muscle - epinephrine Fed state - insulin Glycogenesis Glucose-6-P Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP ADP O 2 NAD + /FAD oxaloacetate Gluconeogenesis (liver) Protein Ubiquitin /Proteosome Amino Acids Transamination Oxidative deamination glucogenic ketogenic Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP OP ADP O 2 Lipase (fasting) Fat (triglycerides) (adipose) fed -oxidation Fatty acids Fatty acid synthesis NADPH CO 2 Ribose-5-P PPP TK/TA acetoacetylCoA ketone bodies (liver) Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Metabolism & Cell Type Brain: Glucose only (normal) adapts to 75% KB utilization (long term fast) Liver: Exports Glucose via glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis makes Fatty acids/cholesterol (fed) ketone bodies (fast) Muscle: Maintains glycogen to allow anaerobic metabolism Adipose: Fat storage Lipase (glucagon) - leptin secretion Heart Muscle: KBs as fuel avoid anaerobic activity
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP Glycolysis Bridging Rx. OP ADP O 2 Metabolic Mainstreet Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP Glycolysis Bridging Rx. OP ADP O 2 Brain Cells fed + early/late fast Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP 25% from Liver Gluconeogenesis OP ADP O 2 Brain Cells Long term fast acetoacetylCoA ketone bodies (from liver) 75% Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP OP ADP O 2 Fatty acids Fat (triglycerides) Fatty acid synthesis NADPH CO 2 Ribose-5-P PPP TK/TA Adipose: Fed state Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP OP ADP O 2 Fatty acids Fat (triglycerides) Lipase (fasting) -oxidation Adipose: fasting state to blood Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP Glycolysis Bridging Rx. OP ADP O 2 Muscle fed state at rest Glycogen Glycogenesis Glucose-6-P Fatty acids -oxidation Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP Glycolysis Bridging Rx. OP ADP O 2 Muscle Anaerobic exercise Glycogen Glycogenolysis Glucose-6-P Fatty acids -oxidation Lactate LDH Muscle McArdles Disease XX Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP OP ADP O 2 Fatty acids Fatty acid synthesis NADPH CO 2 Ribose-5-P PPP TK/TA Liver: Fed state to blood Glycogen Glycogenesis Glucose-6-P Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP Glycolysis Bridging Rx. OP ADP O 2 Liver early fast Glycogen Glycogenolysis Glucose-6-P Fatty acids -oxidation to blood Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP ADP O 2 NAD + /FAD oxaloacetate Gluconeogenesis Protein Amino Acids Fatty acids ketone bodies acetoacetylCoA blood Liver late fast also in diabetes fed state Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Glucose AcetylCoA Pyruvate NADH/FADH 2 C6C6 C4C4 C5C5 C4C4 ATP ADP O 2 NAD + /FAD oxaloacetate Gluconeogenesis Protein Amino Acids Fatty acids acetoacetylCoA ketone bodies blood Liver long term fast Citric Acid Cycle
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  • Fed state [Glu] blood Meal ~12 hrs ~2 hrs Glycogen broken down to provide glucose Insulin release Glucagon release Blood Glucose concentrations normal fasting levels = 60 100 mg/dL
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  • ~ 3 days Fasting State early late long term Lipolysis Brain uses Ketone bodies Protein conserved Protein broken down to make glucose Fatty acids from adipose Glycogen broken down to provide glucose Fatty acids from adipose Absent with Atkins Meal lipolysis continues
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  • Fed [Glu] blood Meal ~12 hrs~2 hrs high glycemic index low fat diet diabetic Atkins insulin resistance (metabolic syndrome) 60 100 mg/dL
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  • 1992 USDA Food Pyramid - Low fat diet fads Bread, cereal, rice, pasta 6-11 Vegetables 3-5 Fruits 2-4 Dairy Meat, Fish 2-3 Eggs, Beans 2-3 Fats use sparingly What constitutes low fat? < 30% of calories from fat extreme diet < 10%
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  • Healthy Eating Pyramid Exercise & weight control Vegetables (lots) Fruits 2-3 Fish, poultry, eggs 0-2 use sparingly Whole grain Plant oils Nuts & legumes 1-3 Dairy/Ca supp 1-2 Multiple vitamin Red meat, butter, white rice, bread, potatoes, pasta, sweets Willett, Walter (2005). Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-6642-0ISBN 0-7432-6642-0
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  • 2001 USDA Food Pyramid (www.MyPyramid.gov) Grains 8 oz. 4 oz. whole grain Vegetables 3 cups weekly Fats sugars Na use sparingly Meat & beans: lean meats more fish, beans, nuts, peas, seeds Fruits 2 cups weekly Milk 3 cups (Ca rich foods low fat) 7 teaspoon = daily limit on oils
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  • FAD Diets Atkins Diet very low carbohydrate (no portion limits) South Beach Diet milder form of Atkins Zone Diet 40:30:30 (% of calories from carbohydrate protein fat) Mediterranean Diet 40% calories from fat but monounsaturated Eating Plans Willet Healthy eating Pyramid USDA 1992 Food Pyramid 2001 Food Pyramid Common Features: 1) exercise 2) Eat your Veggies Majority Features: 1) minimize saturated fats 2) minimize high Glycemic index Carbs 3) replace 1-2 with whole grains/fruits/unsaturated fats 4) portion control Low Fat Diet < 10% calories from fat
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  • Our hunter-gatherer ancestors relied on a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, scrabbling to pick and eat whatever they could find that was tasty. Desire for carbohydrates (sweetness) was balanced by its scarcity, and existed only in forms that included high fiber. Random dietary advice .. Hydration page 129 tap water (over-hyped water in food counts) Diet drinks page 130 (safe - better than sugar drinks water is best) Coffee 132-133 (safe in moderation, beware caffeine) tea 134 (less caffeine than coffee, more antioxidants ) alcohol 135-137 (moderation! 1-2 drinks ok for men breast cancer correlation in women) Ca 151 (over-hyped 500-1000 mg supplements (> dairy) for post-menopausal women) Antioxidants 154 157 (over-hyped drink tea, eat fruits/veggies) Vitamin C 161 (over-hyped RDI = 75 mg/day; 200-300 probably good) Fe 169-170 (not a major problem in US) Na - 173-174 (minority predisposed to hbp - we get too much in diet - processed foods) fiber 97 98 (cancer benefit probably false but - cholesterol and Glycemic index) Protein 0.4g body weight (in lbs) 104 (nuts/veggie sources > lean meats > red meat)