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  • University of Groningen

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPELT) imaging of macrophages in large vessel vasculitis Jiemay, William Febry; Heeringa, Peter; Kamps, Jan A. A. M.; van der Laken, Conny J.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Brouwer, Elisabeth Published in: Autoimmunity reviews

    DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2018.02.006

    IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's version (publisher's PDF) if you wish to cite from it. Please check the document version below.

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    Publication date: 2018

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    Citation for published version (APA): Jiemay, W. F., Heeringa, P., Kamps, J. A. A. M., van der Laken, C. J., Slart, R. H. J. A., & Brouwer, E. (2018). Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPELT) imaging of macrophages in large vessel vasculitis: Current status and future prospects. Autoimmunity reviews, 17(7), 715-726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2018.02.006

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  • Autoimmunity Reviews 17 (2018) 715–726

    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    Autoimmunity Reviews

    j ourna l homepage: www.e lsev ie r .com/ locate /aut rev

    Review

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of macrophages in large vessel vasculitis: Current status and future prospects

    William Febry Jiemy a,b, Peter Heeringa a, Jan A.A.M. Kamps a, Conny J. van der Laken c, Riemer H.J.A. Slart d,e, Elisabeth Brouwer f,⁎ a Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands b Faculty of Applied Science, UCSI University, UCSI Heights, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia c Department of Rheumatology, Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands d Medical Imaging Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands e Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands f Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

    ⁎ Corresponding author at: UniversityMedical Center G Netherlands.

    E-mail address: [email protected] (E. Brouwer).

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2018.02.006 1568-9972/© 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B

    a b s t r a c t

    a r t i c l e i n f o

    Article history: Received 2 February 2018 Accepted 7 February 2018 Available online 3 May 2018

    Macrophages are key players in the pathogenesis of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) and may serve as a target for diagnostic imaging of LVV. The radiotracer, 18F-FDG has proven to be useful in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), a form of LVV. Although uptake of 18F-FDG is high in activatedmacrophages, it is not a specific radiotracer as its uptake is high in any proliferating cell and other activated immune cells resulting in high non-specific back- ground radioactivity especially in aging and atherosclerotic vessels which dramatically lowers the diagnostic ac- curacy. Evidence also exists that the sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET drops in patients upon glucocorticoid treatment. Therefore, there is a clinical need for more specific radiotracers in imaging GCA to improve diagnostic accuracy. Numerous clinically established and newly developed macrophage targeted radiotracers for oncological and in- flammatory diseases can potentially be utilized for LVV imaging. These tracers aremore target specific and there- fore may provide lower background radioactivity, higher diagnostic accuracy and the ability to assess treatment effectiveness. However, current knowledge regarding macrophage subsets in LVV lesions is limited. Further un- derstanding regarding macrophage subsets in vasculitis lesion is needed for better selection of tracers and new targets for tracer development. This review summarizes the development of macrophage targeted tracers in the last decade and the potential application of macrophage targeted tracers currently used in other inflamma- tory diseases in imaging LVV.

    © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

    Keywords: Giant cell arteritis Large vessel vasculitis Positron emission tomography Macrophage Inflammation Single photon emission computed tomography

    Contents

    1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716 2. Large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716

    2.1. Pathogenic model of large-vessel vasculitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716 2.1.1. Vascular dendritic cell (vasDC) activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716 2.1.2. Recruitment, activation and polarisation of CD4+ T-cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716 2.1.3. Recruitment and activation of monocyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717 2.1.4. Vascular remodeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717

    2.2. Macrophages in vasculitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717 2.3. The importance of macrophage targeted imaging in the diagnosis of LVV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717

    3. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718 4. Macrophage targeted PET and SPECT radio-tracers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718

    roningen, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, AA21, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, The

    .V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

    http://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1016/j.autrev.2018.02.006&domain=pdf http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2018.02.006 [email protected] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2018.02.006 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15689972 www.elsevier.com/locate/autrev

  • 716 W.F. Jiemy et al. / Autoimmunity Reviews 17 (2018) 715–726

    4.1. Clinically investigated macrophage targeted tracers for large vessel vasculitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718 4.1.1. Glucose metabolism targeted 18F-FDG PET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718 4.1.2. Translocator protein (TSPO) targeted imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719

    4.2. Macrophage targeted tracers investigated in other inflammatory diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 4.2.1. Macrophage targeted radiotracers in clinical studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721 4.2.2.

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