Prognostic factors in critically ill cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit

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<ul><li><p>at</p><p>an</p><p>a r t i c l e i n f o</p><p>Keywords:ICU mortalityprognostic factorcancer patient</p><p>identify the risk factors associated with ICU mortality.</p><p>Journal of Critical Care xxx (2014) xxxxxx</p><p>Contents lists available at ScienceDirect</p><p>Journal of Cr</p><p>j ourna l homepage: wolder studies, ICU survival has been reported to be improvedConclusion: Intensive care unit mortality rate was 55% in our cancer patients, which suggests that patientswith cancer can benet from ICU admission. We also found that ICU mortality rates of patients withhematological malignancies and solid tumors were similar.</p><p> 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p><p>1. Introduction</p><p>The growing number of patients living with cancer leads to asimilar increase in the number of patients requiring intensive care.Despite the general opinion that admission of cancer patients tointensive care units (ICUs) is usually futile and costly based on some</p><p>signicantly in recent studies [14]. Increased survival expectancyin critically ill cancer patients led conduction of studies thatinvestigate the prognostic factors that predict ICU outcome andguide ICU admission andmanagement strategies [18]. We, therefore,analyzed our data retrospectively to determine the characteristics andoutcomes of cancer patients admitted to our medical ICU and to Corresponding author at: Gazi University FacultyInternal Medicine, Division of Critical Care Medicine, BeTel.: +90 312 2024216.</p><p>E-mail addresses: aygencel@hotmail.com (G. Aygencmeldaturkoglu@yahoo.com.tr (M. Turkoglu), aysucak@gmbenekli@gmail.com (M. Benekli).</p><p>0883-9441/$ see front matter 2014 Elsevier Inc. Alhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.01.014</p><p>Please cite this article as: Aygencel G, et al(2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.201were the independent risk factors in patients with solid tumors.independent predictors for ICU mortality in patients with hematological malignancies, Sequential OrganFailure Assessment score (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.29-2.6; P= .001), lactate dehydrogenase level on admission (OR,1.002; 95% CI, 1-1.005; P = .028), sepsis/septic shock during ICU stay (OR, 138.4; 95% CI, 12.54-1528.4; P =.0001), and complete or partial remission of the underlying cancer (OR, 0.026; 95% CI, 0.002-0.3; P = .004)rnal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Ankara, Turkey</p><p>a b s t r a c t</p><p>Objective: The objective of this study is to identify factors predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality incancer patients admitted to a medical ICU.Patients and methods:We conducted a retrospective study in 162 consecutive cancer patients admitted to themedical ICU of a 1000-bed university hospital between January 2009 and June 2012. Medical history, physicaland laboratory ndings on admission, and therapeutic interventions during ICU staywere recorded. The studyend point was ICU mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factorsfor ICU mortality.Results: The study cohort consisted of 104 (64.2%) patients with solid tumors and 58 patients (35.8%) withhematological malignancies. The major causes of ICU admission were sepsis/septic shock (66.7%) andrespiratory failure (63.6%), respectively. Overall ICU mortality rate was 55 % (n= 89). The ICU mortality rateswere similar in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors (57% vs 53.8%; P = .744). Fourvariables were independent predictors for ICU mortality in cancer patients: the remission status of theunderlying cancer on ICU admission (odds ratio [OR], 0.113; 95% condence interval [CI], 0.027-0.48; P =.003), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.032-1.215; P = .007),sepsis/septic shock during ICU stay (OR, 8.94; 95% CI, 2.28-35; P = .002), and vasopressor requirement (OR16.84; 95% CI, 3.98-71.24; P= .0001). Although Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (OR,1.30; 95% CI, 1.054-1.61; P= .014), admission through emergency service (OR, 0.005; 95% CI, 0.00-0.69; P=.035), and vasopressor requirement during ICU stay (OR, 140.64; 95% CI, 3.59-5505.5; P = .008) wereGazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Meb Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Mc Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Intedicine, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Ankara, Turkeyedicine, Division of Hematology, Ankara, TurkeyaPrognostic factors in critically ill cancer pcare unit</p><p>Gulbin Aygencel, MD a,, Melda Turkoglu, MD a, Gulsof Medicine, Department ofsevler, 06510, Ankara, Turkey.</p><p>el),azi.edu.tr (G. Turkoz Sucak),</p><p>l rights reserved.</p><p>, Prognostic factors in critica4.01.014ients admitted to the intensive</p><p>Turkoz Sucak, MD b, Mustafa Benekli, MD c</p><p>itical Care</p><p>ww.jcc journa l .org2. Patients and methods</p><p>2.1. Study design</p><p>This study is a retrospective, observational study conducted in the 9-bed medical ICU of the Gazi University Hospital, a 1000-bed university</p><p>lly ill cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit, J Crit Care</p></li><li><p>hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Every adult patient (18 years old) withhistologically proven cancerwho required ICU admissionwas evaluatedbetween January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2012. When ICU admission isconsidered in a cancer patient in our center, life expectancy should belonger than 3 months, and/or further treatment options to treat theunderlying cancer should be available. Only the rst admission wasrecorded in patients withmultiple ICU admissions. Patients who stayedin the ICU for shorter than 24 hours were also excluded. This study wasapproved by the institutional review board.</p><p>A total of 162 consecutive cancer patients admitted to ICU during thestudy period were included in the study. The following information wasabstracted from the medical charts of the patients: age and sex;</p><p>2 G. Aygencel et al. / Journal of Critical Care xxx (2014) xxxxxxcomorbidities; type of cancer; characteristics of the cancer includingpresence of metastases; current status of the underlying cancer (completeorpartial remission, relapsed, or progressive1 disease); treatmentmodalitythat includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy; the patient'spreadmission performance status as determined by Eastern CooperativeOncology Group (ECOG2) scale; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(HSCT) status and type of HSCT (autologous and allogeneic); cause of ICUadmission; source of admission (internal medicine, emergency service,etc); time fromhospital to ICU admission; blood chemistries and completeblood count on day 1; presence and site of infection on admission andduring ICU stay; severity of illness score using Acute Physiology andChronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score; organ dysfunctions usingSequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score; therapeutic interven-tions during the ICU stay (use of vasopressors, mechanical ventilation,dialysis, chemotherapy), length of ICU stay; and ICU mortality rate.</p><p>2.2. Statistical analysis</p><p>Data were analyzed using SPSS 13.5 for Windows (SPSS, Inc, Chicago,IL). Descriptive statistics were computed for all study variables. AKolmogorov-Smirnov testwas used, and histograms andnormal-quantileplots were examined to verify the normality of distribution of continuousvariables. Discrete variables are expressed as counts (percentage), andcontinuous variables, asmeansSDormedian (interquartile range, 25%-75%). For demographics and clinical characteristics of the study groups,differences between groups were assessed using a 2, Fisher exact test,Student t test, or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate. Multivariatelogistic regression analysis with ICU mortality as the dependent variablewas conducted in cancer patients. Only variables associatedwith a higherrisk of ICUmortality (P b .05) on a univariate basis were introduced in themultivariate model. P b .05 was considered statistically signicant.</p><p>3. Results</p><p>3.1. Results in the whole study cohort</p><p>There were 1130 admissions during the study period, amongwhom 162 (14.3%) were cancer patients who met the eligibilitycriteria of the study. Median age was 61 (48-71.3) years, and mostpatients were male (58.6%). The most common causes of ICU</p><p>1 Cancer recurrence or relapse is dened as the return of cancer after treatment andafter a period during which the cancer cannot be detected. When cancer spreads orgets worse, it is called progression. When a treatment completely eliminates the tumorand the tumor cannot be seen on the tests or cannot be measured after a period, it iscalled a complete response or complete remission. A partial response or partialremission means the cancer partly responded to treatment. Treatment partly controlsthe tumor and reduces the tumor size.</p><p>2 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale is used to assess how the disease affectsthe daily living abilities of the patient. They included the following: 0, fully active, ableto carry on all predisease performance without restriction; 1, restricted in physicallystrenuous activity but ambulatory and able to carry out work of a light or sedanterynature, for example, light house work, ofce work; 2, ambulatory and capable of allself-care but unable to carry out any work activities; 3, capable of only limited self-care, conned to bed or chair more than 50% of waking hours; and 4, completelydisabled, cannot carry on any self-care, totally conned to bed or chair.Please cite this article as: Aygencel G, et al, Prognostic factors in critical(2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.01.014admission were sepsis/septic shock (66.7%) and respiratory failure(63.6%). The most common comorbidities of the patients werecardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Most patientswere admitted to our medical ICU from emergency service. Two ormore organ dysfunctions were found in 84 patients (52%) onadmission. Renal and pulmonary dysfunctions were the mostcommon organ dysfunctions. Most patients had thrombocytopenia(53.7%), whereas 46 patients had neutropenia. Sixty-eight patientsrequired mechanical ventilation on admission. A possibility of aninfectious etiology or isolation of a microorganism was seen in 147patients on ICU admission.</p><p>Fifty-eight patients (35.8%) in our cohort had hematologicalmalignancies, and 104 patients (64.2%) had solid tumors. Lymphomawas the most common solid tumor, whereas acute leukemia was themost common hematological malignancy. Colon, lung, and breastcancers were the other common solid tumors in our cohort (all typesof cancer in our study group are presented in Table 1). Fifty-vepatients had relapsed or progressive cancer, whereas 54 patients werenewly diagnosed cancer patients. Performance status of the cancerpatients was well (ECOG, 0-2) in 117 patients according to ECOGperformance scale on ICU admission. One hundred fteen patientshad been treated with chemotherapy, and 84 patients had cancertherapywithin amonth before ICU admission. Eighteen of the patientswere stem cell transplant recipients.</p><p>Renal replacement therapy was required in 53 patients (32.7%)during ICU stay. Mechanical ventilation (invasive or noninvasive) wasapplied to 109 patients. Intensive care unitacquired nosocomialinfection was detected in 62 patients (38.3%). Of the cancer patients,73 (45%) survived, and 89 cancer patients (55%) died at the end oftheir ICU stay. Table 1 shows some baseline characteristics of thestudy population.</p><p>3.2. Results in hematological malignancies and solid tumors groups</p><p>Patients are categorized into 2 groups in terms of their type of cancer(patients with hematological malignancies and patients with solidtumors). Patients with solid tumors were older than the patients withhematological malignancies. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scoreswere signicantly higher in patients with hematological malignanciesthan in thosewith solid tumors. Patientswithhematologicalmalignancieshad longer duration of hospital stay before ICU admission. Comorbiditiesvaried among the groups, with a higher prevalence in patients with solidtumors. Anticancer treatment within a month before ICU admission wasmore common in patients with hematological malignancies. Thefrequency of infection on ICU admission was also more common inpatients with hematological malignancies. Episodes of bacteremia weremore frequent in patients with hematological malignancies comparedwith patients with solid tumors. The number of organ failure and renaldysfunction was more common in patients with hematological malig-nancies during ICU stay. Although neutropenia on and during admissionto ICU and thrombocytopenia were more common in patients withhematological malignancies, ICU mortality rate was similar in patientswith hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Table 1 shows somecharacteristics of the patients with hematological malignancies and solidtumors in our ICU.</p><p>3.3. Results in survivors and nonsurvivors</p><p>We subcategorized our cohort according to their outcome andreanalyzed: patients who survived (survivordischarge or transfer)(73 patients, 45%) and who died (nonsurvivors) (89 patients, 55%).Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and SOFA scoreswere signicantly lower, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was signicantlyhigher, and length of ICU stay and length of hospital stay before ICUadmission were signicantly shorter in survivors when comparedwith nonsurvivors. Nonsurvivors had more progressive and relapsedly ill cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit, J Crit Care</p></li><li><p>Table 1Some baseline characteristics of cancer patients in our ICU</p><p>Variable Cancer patients inICU (n = 162)</p><p>Patients with hematologicalmalignancies (n = 58)</p><p>Patients with solidtumors (n = 104)</p><p>P</p><p>Age (y) 61 (48-71.3) 52.5 (33-61.25) 66.5 (33-61.25) .0001Male sex 95 (59%) 40 (69%) 55 (53%) .067Length of hospital stay before ICU admission (d) 4 (1-16) 7 (1.75-26.25) 2 (1-11) .001Length of ICU stay (d) 5 (3-12) 4 (3-9.25) 5(3-14) .56Types of cancerSolid tumors 104 (64%)Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 26 (16%)Colon cancer 19 (12%)Breast cancer 12 (7%)Prostate cancer 8 (5%)Lung cancer 7 (4%)Urinary bladder cancer 7 (4%)Gynecologic cancers 6 (4%)Other solid tumorsa 19 (12%)Hematological malignancies 58 (36%)Acute myeloid leukemia 27 (16.7%)Multiple myeloma 13 (8%)Acute lymphoblastic leukemia 8 (5%)Chronic lymphocytic leukemia 6 (4%)Chronic myelogenous leukemia 4 (2%)</p><p>Characteristics of the cancer on ICU admissionNewly diagnosed 54 (33%) 21 (36%) 33 (32%) .604Complete or partial remission 37 (23%) 10 (17%) 27 (26%) .244Relapsed or progressive disease 55 (34%) 25 (43%) 30 (29%) .084End stage 16 (10%) 2 (3%) 14 (13%) .053Patient's preadmissionperformance statusGood (ECOG 0-2) 117 (72.2%) 39 (67%) 78 (75%) .36Poor (ECOG 3 and 4) 45 (27.8%) 19 (33%) 26 (25%)Cancer treatment statusChemotherapy 115 (71%) 45 (78%) 70 (67%) .207Radiation therapy 41 (25%) 7 (12%) 34 (33%) .004Surgery 44 (27%)Cancer therapy within the last month before ICU admission 84 (52%) 39 (67%) 45 (43%) .005BMT recipient 18 (11%) 14 (24%) 4 (4%) .0001Allogeneic BMT 16 (10%) 12 (21%) 4 (4%) .001ComorbiditiesChronic obstructive pulmonary disease 17 (10%) 2 (3%)...</p></li></ul>

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