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Properties of Materials. Free Write differentiate between chemical and physical properties differentiate between chemical and physical properties list

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  • Properties of Materials

  • Free Writedifferentiate between chemical and physical properties

    list examples of each

  • Chemical Propertieshow a material interacts with another material

    social behavior

    response to other matter (or lack of response)


  • Chemical PropertiesExamples:burningreaction with acidreaction with watercorrosion/rusting/oxidationothers????

  • Physical Propertiescharacteristics it possesses by itself (in and of itself)

    personal traits

    response to energy

  • Physical Propertiescolorsizetexturemelting pointboiling pointsolubilitylusterdensitymagnetismodorviscositycrystalline structure

  • Physical PropertiesElectrical propertiesconductor or insulator

    Optical properties response to lightindex of refraction bending of lighttransparent light passes throughtranslucent some light passes through but no distinct imageopaque no light passes through

  • Physical PropertiesThermal properties response to heat


    specific heat how much energy it takes to change temperature

    thermal expansion example: iron wire demo

  • Mechanical Propertiessubgroup of physical

    response to force or stressforce a push or pull

    stress force causing a deformation or distortion (force per unit area)

  • Mechanical PropertiesExamplesworkabilitymalleability can be flattenedductility can be drawn into wire (stretched), bent, or extruded

  • Mechanical PropertiesExamplesbrittlenessbreaks instead of deforming when stress is applied

    hardnessresistance to denting or scratching

  • Mechanical PropertiesExampleselasticityability to return to original shape after being deformed by stress rubber ball or piece of elastic

    plasticityretains new shape after being deformed by stress wet clay ball or piece of saran wrap

  • Mechanical PropertiesExamplestoughnessability to absorb energy resistance to fracture

    strengthresistance to distortion by stress or force several types: tensile, compressive, torsional, bending, shear

  • Types of Stresses/ForcesTensionpullingexamples: tug-of-war, slingshot

    Compressionpushing together or squeezingexamples: bed springs, can crusher, bench vise

  • Types of Stresses/ForcesTorsiontwistingexample: wringing out a wet towel

    Shearopposite forces not lined upexamples: scissors, pin in a wagon tongue, shear pin

  • Stress-Strain CurveStress cause force causing a deformation or distortion

    Strain effectchange caused by stress (ex. elongation)

  • stressstrainCeramic orglassmetalpolymerstraight line = elastic regioncurved line = plastic region

  • City of Materials

    Tensile tests up of tensile strain and break


  • General Classes of Materials

  • Polymers

  • Ceramics

  • Composites

  • Metals and Alloys

  • Metals and Alloys

  • Wood and Wood Products

  • Density

  • Densityhow much stuff per how much spacestuff = matter (mass)space = volumeper = divide

    Density =

    Unit = g/cm3 or g/mL massvolume

  • MassMassamount of mattermeasured with a balanceunit = grams (g)

  • VolumeVolume how much space it occupiesliquidsmeasured with a graduated cylinderunit = mLsolidsregular-shapedfind the dimensions and use an equationirregular-shapeduse the water displacement methodunits = cm31cm3 = 1 mL

  • Variations in DensityDensity varies with change in temperature of a substance.warmer is usually less densewarm objects/substances usually expandsame mass, more volume

    Density does not vary with a change in amount of a substanceWhich is more dense: a gram of aluminum or a kilogram of aluminum?

  • Calculating Density of an Unknown SolidProcedure:

    You must do two cylinders, two cubes, and one irregular shaped solid.

    Make a table to record all data.

    1. Record the identifying letter of the sample.

    2. Measure and record the mass.Use the entire sample for the irregular shaped solid.

  • Calculating Density of an Unknown Solid3. Measure and record the dimensions of the regular shaped solids.Use the digital calipers and convert mm to cm (move decimal point one place to the left). cube: length, width, and heightcylinder: diameter and height

    4. Use water displacement to find the volume of the irregular shaped solidRecord it in your data table.Use the entire sample.Describe the basic procedure for water displacement in your journal.

  • Calculating Density of an Unknown Solid5. Calculate and record the volume for the regular shaped solids using the following formulas:

    cube: volume = length x width x height

    cylinder: volume = r2hradius = diameter/2 = 3.14

  • Calculating Density of an Unknown Solid6. Calculate and record the density of the five materials.Be sure to include units.Record the formula for density in your journal.

    7. Use the list of densities to identify each material and record your choice.

    Burning strike a match and burn a piece of paper burn a piece of magnesium burn a copper wireDrop a piece of zinc in HCl3. Show clip of sodium in water???? - videosDemo viscosity tubesPyrite for luster1. Use a digital meter on a conductor and on an insulator2. Index of refraction how much light bends as it passes through a substance example: standing in waist deep water or a pencil in a beaker of water, remind students of water gel crystals we did at beginning of yearshow examples of all 3 use glass or plastic show a Corelle plate have them touch a table leg (wood) and a chair leg (metal) at the same time discuss use Ed. In. melt blocksSpecific heat metals have low doesnt take much energy to heat them up or cool them down ceramics/glass are higher water is very high (reason it is used in cooling systems)Ball and ring, bimetallic strip, piston and sleeveMalleability - (show students a rolled penny)Ductility - (show drawn wire)Show Play doh fun factory for extrusion Brittleness snap a piece of chalkHardness - pass around talc (do a metal hardness test demo dent metal plates using a heavy weight w/ a ball bearing attached make a shading of the dents and measure their width w/ a caliper rank the metals)

    Show happy/sad ballsShow poppers????(toss a metal piece - scoopula, plastic water bottle, unglazed dried clay (in a baggie), a test tube (in a baggie), Corelle plate) metals and polymers tend to exhibit more toughness than ceramics or glass Corelle is an exception Excellent simulation - Also use the 2 overheads(demo break a piece of chalk w/ torsion) Show GM video clips of testing methodsstress/strain stuff - OSU Properties of industrial materials PP - OSU3. Strength and elongation graphs - CambridgeClass levelPolymersceramicscompositesMetals and alloys Metals and alloysWood and wood products

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