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Protestant Reformation - uml. · PDF file 2013-01-22 · Protestant Reformation 2 Protestant, Catholic, or Both? • 6. Clergy cannot marry and must remain celibate. • 7. The Mass

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  • Protestant Reformation

    1

    The Protestant Reformation 1517 – ca.1564

    How and why are these two churches different?

    True or False?

    •  Test your knowledge of the Protestant Reformation……

    Protestant, Catholic, or Both? •  1. The Pope in Rome is the sole head of the

    Church and must be obeyed. •  2. Baptism (whether of adults or children)

    is an important symbolic rite. •  3. Faith alone is sufficient to earn

    salvation. •  4. Praying to saints and making

    pilgrimages can assist you in achieving salvation.

    •  5. Women priests/ministers are allowed.

  • Protestant Reformation

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    Protestant, Catholic, or Both?

    •  6. Clergy cannot marry and must remain celibate.

    •  7. The Mass can only be recited in Latin. •  8. Jesus died on the Cross and was

    resurrected three days later, thus sacrificing himself for the sins of future generations.

    •  9. John Calvin and Martin Luther are saints.

    •  10. The Eucharist contains Christ’s body and blood.

    The Protestant Reformation (1517-1555)

    •  Why is it important, then and now? •  Why did it happen? •  Who were some of the leaders? •  How did people learn about these ideas?

    Vocabulary •  Indulgence •  Transubstantiation •  Simony •  Pluralism •  Nepotism •  Sola scriptura •  Sola fide •  Sola gratia •  Solus Christus •  Soli Deo gloria •  Diet

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    Christianity in the West

    •  http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/ christ/west/index.html

    http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/christ/

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    Significance of Protestant Reformation

    •  Loss of Catholic unity & “Christendom” •  Literacy •  Puritans (and Presbyterians, and Methodists,

    and Congregationalists, and Amish, and....) •  “Protestant work ethic” (Max Weber) •  Rise of capitalism, individualism •  “liberation” from Catholicism •  Separation of Church & State (?)

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    Timeline of the Early Reformation

    •  1517: Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the Wittenburg church

    •  1518: Zwingli gains control of Zurich •  1521: Diet of Worms condemns Luther •  1534: Henry VIII declared “Supreme head

    of the Church and Clergy of England” •  1536: Calvin gains control of Geneva

    Causes of the Protestant Reform.

    •  [P.E.R.S.I.A. + G.T.]

    •  Economic •  “when a coin in coffer

    rings….”

    •  Religious •  “sola scriptura” •  “justific. by faith”

    •  Political •  “cuius regio eius religio”

    •  Social •  Peasant rebellions

    •  Intellectual •  “ad fontes’ •  Renaiss. humanism

    •  Technological •  Printing press, pamphlets

    •  Other? •  Luther, Calvin, et al.

    Europe Divided

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    Martin Luther •  b. 1483 •  1502 Ph.D in theology •  Sensitive, insecure, emotional,

    fearful of a harsh Christian God •  1512 professor @ U. of

    Wittenberg; a “good monk” •  But he’s not confident that he’s

    earned salvation by conventional means, and he hates indulgences.

    •  He publishes 95 Theses with his ideas re justification by faith, finding answers in Scripture, & priesthood of all believers.

    Leaders of the Protestant Reform.

    •  Martin Luther (1483-1546)

    •  John Calvin (1509-1564)

    •  Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547)

    •  Thomas Munster (1490-1525)

    Cranach, Luther and the

    Wittenberg Reformers

    The Toledo Museum of Art, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey

    •  The massive figure of John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, who protected and supported Luther, dominates this group portrait of Martin Luther and the Wittenberg Reformers by Lucas Cranach the Younger. Luther is on the far left; his associate Philipp Melanchthon is in the front row on the right. Luther's face shows a quiet determination.

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    The sale of indulgences

    •  The problem: how can one atone for grievous sin?

    •  The solution: Service on behalf of the Church: –  Crusading –  Pay for a crusader –  Payment to the Church

    •  Church has a “treasury of merits” stored up by Christ and the saints

    Indulgence printed by Wm. Caxton, 1476

    Sale of Indulgences (and other vices…)

    Woodcuts of the Reformation

    •  Why so popular? –  Inexpensive to buy –  Easy to produce –  Appeals to (il)literate

    audience –  Radical themes –  Hybrid of oral, print, &

    image culture

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    “The Complaint of the Godless Against Luther” (Hans Behem, 1524)

    “Luther with Seven Heads” (Hans Brosamer, 1529)

    “The Seven-Headed Papal Beast” (Anonymous, ca. 1539-43)

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    “Zwingli Preaching vs. Catholic Priest” (Gerog Pencz, ca. 1529)

    “Luther Preaching, With Jaws of Hell” (ca. 1530)

    The Protestant Reformation 1517- ca.1564