Protestant Reformation. What was the Protestant Reformation? Protestant Reformation: Protestant Reformation: –Period in European history in which people

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  • Slide 1
  • Protestant Reformation
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  • What was the Protestant Reformation? Protestant Reformation: Protestant Reformation: Period in European history in which people began to criticize the Catholic Church People began to create their own Christian churches These new churches would be called Protestant or reformed churches
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  • When and where did the Reformation take place? The Reformation began in the 1500s The Reformation began in the 1500s It started in German territories of the Holy Roman Empire and spread to other parts of Europe It started in German territories of the Holy Roman Empire and spread to other parts of Europe
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  • Why did the Reformation take place? Causes: Causes: Knowledge acquired during the Renaissance caused people to question the authority of the church Christian Humanism: an intellectual movement in Northern Europe which focused on the church and attempted to create reforms
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  • Why did the Reformation take place? Erasmus was a major critic of the Catholic Church Erasmus was a major critic of the Catholic Church In Praise of Folly: Erasmus famous book in which he criticized European society, including religion He saw the Church as corrupt, especially monks (men who lived in monasteries and devoted their lives to God) Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched
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  • Why did the Reformation take place? Corruption in the Church Corruption in the Church Inconsistencies between Church doctrine and behavior among the clergy (church officials) Church was too involved in politics Church was seen as corrupt and greedy Hypocrisy by the clergy Greed in the Church
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  • Why did the Reformation take place? Indulgences: a pardon for sins. The Catholic Church had started to sell indulgences to raise money for art, wars, etc. In essence, the Church was trying to sell salvation in exchange for money. This practice made the church appear greedy and money hungry Johann Tetzel was a monk who traveled around to sell indulgences
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  • Major Figures of the Reformation Martin Luther Martin Luther German monk and priest Author of 95 Theses in which he criticizes the Catholic Church At first, he wanted to reform the Church, but evenutally creates an entirely new church Diet of Worms: Luther put on trial for his accusations against the Church he was labeled a heretic and excommunicated from the Catholic Church
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  • Major Figures from the Reformation Martin Luther Martin Luther Began to develop a new type of Christianity known as Lutheranism Beliefs of Lutheranism Salvation by faith alone Individual study of the bible Church leaders can marry No religious orders (no monks or nuns)
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  • Major Figures from the Reformation John Calvin John Calvin From northern France Developed a type of Christianity known as Calvinism Major Beliefs of Calvinism: Predestination: it is already predetermined which souls will go to heaven and which will go to Hell Protestant Work Ethic: keep busy and work hard, which will keep you out of trouble and demonstrate faith
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  • Major Figures from the Reformation Henry VIII Henry VIII King of England Originally known as the Defender of the Catholic Faith Creates his own Church when the Pope refuses to grant his annulment/divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon He wanted to remarry in hopes of a new wife giving birth to a son He had 6 wives in his life.2 famous daughters and 1 son He was a mean man who had 2 of his wives executed Founder of the Church of England also known as the Anglican Church
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  • Major Figures from the Reformation Henry VIII Henry VIII Henry VIII modeled his church after the Catholic Church and kept much of the same practices Big difference: he put himself at the head of the Church, which severed ties with the Pope in Rome He did, however, seize Catholic lands and sold them for profit He began to impose Anglicanism on the peope of England
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  • Spread of the Reformation The ideas of the Protestant Reformation began to spread throughout Europe The ideas of the Protestant Reformation began to spread throughout Europe Other branches of Protestantism would be created over time In most countries, Catholics and Protestants began to fight and kill each other over religious differences Countries not heavily affected by the Reformation: Countries not heavily affected by the Reformation: Spain and Portugal remained huge supporters of the Catholic Church Used the Inquisition to find and eliminate heretics Italy also remained closely tied to the Catholic Church
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  • Catholic Response to the Reformation Catholic Church looked for ways to improve its image and bring people back to the Church Catholic Church looked for ways to improve its image and bring people back to the Church This became known as the Catholic Reformation or the Counter Reformation
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  • Catholic Reformation Council of Trent: Council of Trent: Series of meetings held to discuss Church policies and improve reputation of the Church Changes made to the Church: Stopped selling indulgences Created seminaries (religious schools) to train church officials Began to crack down on clerical abuses and hypocrisy Created new religious orders such as the Jesuits (Society of Jesus) to spread Catholicism Patronage of arts to show power of the Church Baroque period art is associated with the Catholic Reformation Reaffirmed the supremacy and importance of the Pope
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  • Wars of Religion Conflict began between Catholics and Protestants. Conflict began between Catholics and Protestants. Catholic governments sometimes persecuted Protestant minorities Warfare and killing took place in France, England, and the Holy Roman Empire Warfare and killing took place in France, England, and the Holy Roman Empire
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  • French Wars of Religion Catholicism was dominant religion of France Catholicism was dominant religion of France French kings supported the Catholic Church Calvinism was popular among the nobility Calvinism was popular among the nobility French protestants know as Huguenots Violence was common between the two groups in the 1500s Violence was common between the two groups in the 1500s
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  • French Wars of Religion St Bartholomew Day Massacre: St Bartholomew Day Massacre: Over 2,000 Protestants were brutally murdered in Paris Edict of Nantes: (1598) Edict of Nantes: (1598) Issued by King Henry V (Henry of Navarre) to end the violence Established Catholicism as the official religion of France but granted religious tolerance to Huguenots
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  • Conflict in England Bloody Mary: daughter of Henry VIII Bloody Mary: daughter of Henry VIII She was a Catholic and had Protestants killed Puritans: a Protestant group that emerged in England, did not like the Anglican Church or Catholic Church Puritans: a Protestant group that emerged in England, did not like the Anglican Church or Catholic Church Wanted to purify the religion of England
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  • Religious Conflict in Holy Roman Empire Fighting was most common in the HRE Fighting was most common in the HRE Lutherans, Calvinists, and Catholics all competing for power Lutherans, Calvinists, and Catholics all competing for power Peace of Augsburg: 1555 Peace of Augsburg: 1555 Temporarily ended violence by allowing German princes to choose their own religion (Catholic or Lutheran) Calvinism not protected
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  • Religious Conflict in the Holy Roman Empire Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Last major war of religion 30 years of killing and violence German territories devastated by the war Peace of Westphalia: Peace of Westphalia: Brought an end to the Thirty Years War and the major wars of religion