Psy 120 Human Development

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Psy 120 Human Development. Womb to tomb Cannot get credit for 120 and 211 at OCC Fast paced to the very end. Jan Thompson-Wilda 219, 847-635-1477 22 nd year at OCC Student Development Faculty. Psy 120 Human Development. Chapter 1The Study of Human Development. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Psy 120 Human Development

    Womb to tombCannot get credit for 120 and 211 at OCCFast paced to the very end

    Jan Thompson-Wilda219, 847-635-147722nd year at OCCStudent Development Faculty

  • Psy 120 Human Development

    Chapter 1The Study of Human Development

  • Formal Study of Human Development

    Human Development:The scientific study of how humans developMain questions: How do people change throughout their lives?What characteristics remain stable?

  • Developmental ProcessesChange and Stability

    2 kinds of changeQuantitative changechange in number or amountQualitative changechange in kind, structure, or organization

    Despite change, there is also underlying stability

  • Basic Questions about DevelopmentWhich aspects of development are universal, and which vary from one individual or group to the next?are continuous, and which are not?are more or less fixed (like marble) and difficult to change, and which are relatively malleable and easy to change (like clay)?

    What makes development happen?

  • Guiding PrinciplesDevelopment results from constant interplay of biology and the environment.Development occurs in multilayered context.Development is a dynamic, reciprocal process.Development is cumulative. Development occurs throughout the life-span.

  • Domains of Development

    Physical development

    Cognitive development

    Social and emotional development

  • Human Development TodayGoals of This Scientific Discipline

  • Periods of the Life Span

    Social construction

    8 periods generally agreed upon

    Individual differences exist, but there are particular needs and tasks that must be met at certain stages for normal development to occur

  • TheoriesSets of statements that propose general principles of development

    Predictions or HypothesesAn educated guess that is testable by data collection and analysisResearch Methods and Designs

  • Theories of DevelopmentClassical TheoriesPsychoanalytic theoryFreuds theory of psychosexual developmentEriksons theory of psychosocial developmentLearning theoryBehaviorismClassical conditioningOperant conditioningSocial learning theoryCognitive-Developmental theory

  • Psychoanalytic--development shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior

  • FreudDevelopment is shaped by unconscious forces that motivate behaviorIdpleasure principleEgoreality principleSuperegoconscienceshoulds, oughtsPsychosexual developmentOralAnalPhallicLatencyGenital

  • Erikson

  • Learningdevelopment results from experiences in the environment

  • BehaviorismClassical Conditioning

    Pavlovs experiments

    A natural response to a stimulus is transferred to a second stimulus

  • BehaviorismOperant ConditioningIndividuals learn fromoperating on the environment

  • Classical Conditioning

  • Operant Conditioning

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejjZZNGfIOM&feature=relatedReinforcementprocess by which a behavior is strengthened, increasing the likelihood it will be repeated

    Punishmentprocess by which a behavior is weakened, decreasing the likelihood it will be repeated

  • Social Learning Theoryhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=ikTxfIDYx6Q&NR=1Not exactly, but cute.

    This is more like it.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZXOp5PopIA&feature=relatedAlbert Bandura

    Modeling, or observational learning

    Model is usually someone powerful or admired, similar to you, when you see the model rewarded for the behavior you are observing

  • Cognitive-Developmental Theory

    Emphasizes changes in thinking over the lifespan

    Piagetstage theorySensorimotorPreoperationalConcrete OperationalFormal Operational

    Organizationthe tendency to create categories

    Schemespeople create these increasingly complex cognitive structures for organizing information

    AdaptationAdjustment to new information from the environmentAssimilationAccommodation

    Equilibrationconstant striving for balance, equilibriumshift from assimilation to accommodation

  • Theories of Development

    Contemporary Theories

    Ecological perspectiveSociocultural perspectiveBehavioral genetics Evolutionary perspectiveDynamic systems theory

  • Ecological perspective

  • Bronfenbrenners 5 Interlocking Contextual SystemsDevelopment occurs through increasingly complex processes of regular, active, two-way interaction between the developing person and the immediate environmentThe contextthe ecological systemeither supports or stifles growth

  • Sociocultural Perspective

    Emphasizes the ways development involves adaptation to specific cultural demands

  • Behavioral Genetics

    Emphasizes the inherited bases of behavior

    Reciprocol influences between genes and environment

  • Evolutionary Perspective

    Emphasizes how behavior develops as a result of adaptation to environment

  • Dynamic Systems Perspective

    Emphasizes that all facets of development, domains, context are part of a dynamic, constantly changing system

  • The Scientific Study of DevelopmentThe scientific method: A systematic, step-by-step procedure for testing ideas.

  • Research methods

    Observational researchNaturalistic observationParticipant observationStructured observationSelf-reportsStandardized testsReliabilityValidity

  • Basic Research Designs

    Case studiesCorrelational studiesExperimentsGroups and variablesRandom assignmentLaboratory, field and natural experiments

  • Figure 1.3: Positive and Negative Correlations*

  • The Scientific Method

    Studying change over time Longitudinal research Cross-sectional studies Accelerated longitudinal design*

  • Figure 1.4: Research Designs for Studies of Development*

    Theories sets of statements that propose general principles of development.Hypothesis an educated guess that is testable by data collection.

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