Psy 120 Human Development
Womb to tombCannot get credit for 120 and 211 at OCCFast paced to the very end
Jan Thompson-Wilda219, 847-635-147722nd year at OCCStudent Development Faculty
Psy 120 Human Development
Chapter 1The Study of Human Development
Formal Study of Human Development
Human Development:The scientific study of how humans developMain questions: How do people change throughout their lives?What characteristics remain stable?
Developmental ProcessesChange and Stability
2 kinds of changeQuantitative changechange in number or amountQualitative changechange in kind, structure, or organization
Despite change, there is also underlying stability
Basic Questions about DevelopmentWhich aspects of development are universal, and which vary from one individual or group to the next?are continuous, and which are not?are more or less fixed (like marble) and difficult to change, and which are relatively malleable and easy to change (like clay)?
What makes development happen?
Guiding PrinciplesDevelopment results from constant interplay of biology and the environment.Development occurs in multilayered context.Development is a dynamic, reciprocal process.Development is cumulative. Development occurs throughout the life-span.
Domains of Development
Social and emotional development
Human Development TodayGoals of This Scientific Discipline
Periods of the Life Span
8 periods generally agreed upon
Individual differences exist, but there are particular needs and tasks that must be met at certain stages for normal development to occur
TheoriesSets of statements that propose general principles of development
Predictions or HypothesesAn educated guess that is testable by data collection and analysisResearch Methods and Designs
Theories of DevelopmentClassical TheoriesPsychoanalytic theoryFreuds theory of psychosexual developmentEriksons theory of psychosocial developmentLearning theoryBehaviorismClassical conditioningOperant conditioningSocial learning theoryCognitive-Developmental theory
Psychoanalytic--development shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior
FreudDevelopment is shaped by unconscious forces that motivate behaviorIdpleasure principleEgoreality principleSuperegoconscienceshoulds, oughtsPsychosexual developmentOralAnalPhallicLatencyGenital
Learningdevelopment results from experiences in the environment
A natural response to a stimulus is transferred to a second stimulus
BehaviorismOperant ConditioningIndividuals learn fromoperating on the environment
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejjZZNGfIOM&feature=relatedReinforcementprocess by which a behavior is strengthened, increasing the likelihood it will be repeated
Punishmentprocess by which a behavior is weakened, decreasing the likelihood it will be repeated
Social Learning Theoryhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=ikTxfIDYx6Q&NR=1Not exactly, but cute.
This is more like it.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZXOp5PopIA&feature=relatedAlbert Bandura
Modeling, or observational learning
Model is usually someone powerful or admired, similar to you, when you see the model rewarded for the behavior you are observing
Emphasizes changes in thinking over the lifespan
Piagetstage theorySensorimotorPreoperationalConcrete OperationalFormal Operational
Organizationthe tendency to create categories
Schemespeople create these increasingly complex cognitive structures for organizing information
AdaptationAdjustment to new information from the environmentAssimilationAccommodation
Equilibrationconstant striving for balance, equilibriumshift from assimilation to accommodation
Theories of Development
Ecological perspectiveSociocultural perspectiveBehavioral genetics Evolutionary perspectiveDynamic systems theory
Bronfenbrenners 5 Interlocking Contextual SystemsDevelopment occurs through increasingly complex processes of regular, active, two-way interaction between the developing person and the immediate environmentThe contextthe ecological systemeither supports or stifles growth
Emphasizes the ways development involves adaptation to specific cultural demands
Emphasizes the inherited bases of behavior
Reciprocol influences between genes and environment
Emphasizes how behavior develops as a result of adaptation to environment
Dynamic Systems Perspective
Emphasizes that all facets of development, domains, context are part of a dynamic, constantly changing system
The Scientific Study of DevelopmentThe scientific method: A systematic, step-by-step procedure for testing ideas.
Observational researchNaturalistic observationParticipant observationStructured observationSelf-reportsStandardized testsReliabilityValidity
Basic Research Designs
Case studiesCorrelational studiesExperimentsGroups and variablesRandom assignmentLaboratory, field and natural experiments
Figure 1.3: Positive and Negative Correlations*
The Scientific Method
Studying change over time Longitudinal research Cross-sectional studies Accelerated longitudinal design*
Figure 1.4: Research Designs for Studies of Development*
Theories sets of statements that propose general principles of development.Hypothesis an educated guess that is testable by data collection.