PSY 368 Human Memory Neuropsychology & Memory Review for Exam 2
Announcements Focus Questions for Weldon and Roediger (1987) Due Monday Today Exam 2 Wednesday (March 28)
Alzheimer s Disease Alzheimers disease Cortical, progressive dementia Criteria deficit in two or more areas of cognition, at least one of which is memory interferes with social or occupational functioning decline from premorbid level gradually progressive course rule out other causes
Alzheimer s Disease Alzheimers disease (video clip # 19, ~7mins)video clip Cortical, progressive dementia Disease is associated with the development of neuro- fibrillary tangles and plaques To stay healthy, neurons must communicate with each other, carry out metabolism, and repair themselves. AD disrupts all three of these essential jobs. Pet Scan of Normal Brain Pet Scan of Alzheimer s Disease Brain
Alzheimer s Disease Alzheimers disease Signs of AD are first noticed in the entorhinal cortex, then proceed to the hippocampus. Affected regions begin to shrink as nerve cells die. Changes can begin 10-20 years before symptoms appear. Memory loss is the first sign of AD. Preclinical AD
Alzheimer s Disease Alzheimers disease AD spreads through the brain. The cerebral cortex begins to shrink as more and more neurons stop working and die. Mild AD signs can include memory loss, confusion, trouble handling money, poor judgment, mood changes, and increased anxiety. Moderate AD signs can include increased memory loss and confusion, problems recognizing people, difficulty with language and thoughts, restlessness, agitation, wandering, and repetitive statements. Mild to Moderate AD
Alzheimer s Disease Alzheimers disease In severe AD, extreme shrinkage occurs in the brain. Patients are completely dependent on others for care. Symptoms can include weight loss, seizures, skin infections, groaning, moaning, or grunting, increased sleeping, loss of bladder and bowel control. Death usually occurs from aspiration pneumonia or other infections. Caregivers can turn to a hospice for help and palliative care. Severe ADs
Alzheimers Disease The brains of people with AD have an abundance of two abnormal structures: An actual AD plaque An actual AD tangle Beta-amyloid plaques Dense deposits of protein and cellular material that accumulate outside and around nerve cells Neurofibrillary tangles Twisted fibers that build up inside the nerve cell Alzheimers disease
Alzheimer s Disease Alzheimers disease Relatively intact articulatory loop of WM three types of memory problems WM verbal and spatial memory impairments Episodic memory impaired (e.g., free recall) Executive function Semantic memory is also impaired Naming and word generation impaired in AD Note: pure amnesics do not have the latter two impairments
Exam 2 Review Chapter 5: Memory Processing Craik & Lockhart (1972), Levels of processing (slide 16) Craik & Tulving (1975) good experimental evidence supporting LOP (deeper processing remembered better) (slide 17) Transfer Appropriate Processing Morris, Bransford, & Franks (1977) good experimental evidence supporting TAP (match of processing at encoding and retrieval more important than LOP) (slide 18-21) Context effects (similar context at encoding & test, better memory) Encoding Specificity Principle (Thompson & Tulving, 1970) (slide 22-23)
Exam 2 Review Chapter 6: Forgetting Ebbinghaus and forgetting function (slide 24) Permastore (see Bahrick studies) (slides 25-27) Retrospective vs. Prospective memory Theories of forgetting Failure of Consolidation Decay Context/cue mismatch Interference (retroactive and proactive) (slides 28-29)
Exam 2 Review Chapter 7: Implicit Memory Implicit memory tasks (vs. explicit tasks) (slides 30-31) Process Dissociation Procedure (Jacoby, 1991) (slides 32-34) Theoretical accounts The activation view Multiple memory systems (slide 35) Transfer appropriate processing Blaxton (1989) (data vs. conceptual driven, or direct vs. indirect) (slides 36-40) Bias view
Exam 2 Review Chapter 8: Neuropsychology and Memory Methods of study (slide 41) Neurons and the Brain (slides 42-45) Hippocampus Memory Disorders Amnesia (slide 46) Anterograde retrograde Alzheimers Disease (todays lecture, slides 3-9)
Exam 2 Review Chapter 9: Recognition Recall vs. Recognition Signal Detection Method (slide 47) Single vs. dual process theories (slides 48-51) Tagging Model Strength Theory Generate-Recognize Model Remember/Know Processes Model Face Recognition (slide 52)
Level of Processing Craik & Lockhart (1972) Considered level of processing at study to be more important for memory than intent to learn Levels of processing = how deeply the item is processed The depth of processing helps determine the durability in LTM. Level of ProcessingExample 1) Visual FormDOG includes the letters D, O, and G 2) PhonologyRhymes with FOG 3) Semantics (Meaning) A four-legged pet that often chases cats and chews on bones SHALLOW DEEP
Craik and Tulving (1975) Levels of Processing Task : Participants viewed words and were asked to make three different types of judgments: Visual processing (e.g. Is LOG in upper case? Y/N) Phonological (e.g. Does DOG rhyme with LOG? Y/N) Semantic (e.g. Does DOG fit in the sentence: The ___ chased the cat? Y/N) Finally, participants were asked to recognize the words they had seen before in a surprise test including both old and new words.
Morris, Bransford, and Franks (1977) Task : Participants made either a phonological or semantic judgment about each item on a word list. Study: eagle (yes/no fits clue) Deep - The ____ is the US national bird. Shallow - rhymes with legal The learning was incidental: participants were not told that they would have to later recall the words. This constrains (limits) the learning strategies used. Transfer-appropriate processing
Morris, Bransford, and Franks (1977) Task : The final test was either: A standard recognition test for the learned words. A rhyming recognition test for learned words e.g., Was a word presented that rhymed with regal?. Transfer-appropriate processing
Encoding:Recognition test: Rhyming test: Does ____ rhyme with legal? (eagle) 63%49% Does ____ have feathers? (eagle) 84%33% Morris, Bransford, and Franks (1977) Results : Standard recognition test: Deeper processing led to better performance. Rhyming recognition test: The shallower rhyme-based encoding task led to better performance because it matched the demands of the testing situation.
Transfer-appropriate processing Encoding:Recognition test: Rhyming test: Does ____ rhyme with legal? (eagle) 63%49% Does ____ have feathers? (eagle) 84%33% Morris, Bransford, and Franks (1977) Conclusion: The take-home message is that when the processing at encoding matches the processing at retrieval, performance will be better. It only makes sense to talk about a learning methods efficiency in the context of the type of final test.
Thompson and Tulving (1970) Examined effectiveness of cue Had people learn lists of strong or weak associates. Strong vs. weak cues (flower) Strong: bloom Weak: fruit Study: no cue vs. weak cue Test: no cue, weak cue, or strong cue Encoding Specificity Principle
Thompson and Tulving (1970) Thompson and Tulving showed that this can be reversed if you change the study context. The best retrieval cue for a word like flower would be a strong associate like bloom. fruit is weakly associated to flower, and would be unlikely to pull it out.
Memory Performance Rapid forgetting for short delays - slower for longer delays Forgetting Ebbinghaus (1885)
What do we forget? Permastore: Describes the leveling off of the forgetting curve at long delays. Beyond this point, memories appear impervious to further forgetting. Bahrick (1984) Permastore Rapid forgetting of foreign language for 3 yrs, Then of a asymptotes (levels off) after about 2 years, Stays fairly constant even up to 50 yrs. The overall level of retention is determined by the level of initial learning.
Bahrick, Bahrick & Wittlinger (1975) Permastore Tested nearly 400 high-school graduates on their ability to recognize and name classmates after delays of up to 30 years. Questions Recall Can you list all your classmates? Can you name all these faces? Recognition Is this the name of a classmate? Is this the face of a classmate? Match these names and faces
Bahrick, Bahrick & Wittlinger (1975) Permastore Tested nearly 400 high-school graduates on their ability to recognize and name classmates after delays of up to 30 years. Results were mixed : Relatively unimpaired: Ability to recognize their classmates faces/names. Ability to match up names to the appropriate portraits. Conclusion : Recall, but not recognition, of well-learned personal material, closely follows the forgetting curve first demonstrated by Ebbinghaus (1913). Extensively impaired: Ability to recall a name, given a persons portrait. Recognition Name Matching Recall Name the picture 3.3 mons. 47+ yrs.
Retroactive Interference (RI) How do we forget? Forgetting caused by encoding new traces into memory in between the initial encoding of the target and when it is tested. Introducing a related second list of items impairs recall of the first list compared to a control condition.
Proactive Interference (PI) How do we forget? The tendency for older memories to interfere with the retrieval of more recent experiences and knowledge. The number of previous learning experiences (e.g. lists) largely determines the rate of forgetting at long delays.
Memory Tasks indirectdirect incidental implicit memory expts. Levels of Processing expts. intentional ?explicit memory expts. Test Instructions Study Instructions Implicit Memory : Often defined as "memory without awareness Also Non-declarative & procedural (Squire, Knowlton, & Mesen, 1993)
Perceptual Tasks Word identification Word stem completion Word fragment completion Degraded word naming Anagram solution Lexical decision Implicit Memory Tasks Non-Verbal Tasks Picture fragment naming Object decision task Possible/impossible object decision Conceptual Tasks Word association Category instance generation Answering general knowledge questions Often defined as "memory without awareness
Tasks are not process pure (Jacoby, 1991) Indirect measures of memory may be contaminated by intentional uses of memory E.g., in stem completion task, subjects might remember items from previous list and use them to complete the stems Direct measures may be influenced by unconscious or automatic influences (Jacoby, Toth, & Yonelinas, 1993) Process-Dissociation Procedure was developed to separate automatic (unconscious) and conscious processes Mixing Measures
Jacoby (1991) Read a list of words List 1 Hear a list of words List 2 Two recognition tests: Both tests include List 1, List 2 and novel words. Inclusion = complete task with studied or any item Respond old if word was on either list. Exclusion = complete task with item NOT studied (exclude studied items) Respond old only if word was on List 2. Process Dissociation Procedure
Can calculate C and A for each condition in the experiment C = (Proportion of studied items in inclusion) - (Proportion of studied items in exclusion) A = (Proportion of studied items in exclusion) / (1-C) The C and A values are estimated as proportions - values between 0 and 1.0 Data Proportion of studied items in inclusion = C + (1-C)(A) Proportion of studied items in exclusion = (1-C)(A) Jacoby (1991) Process Dissociation Procedure
Multiple Memory Systems What is a system? Schacter and Tulving (1994) SystemOther NameSubsystemsCharacteristics ProceduralNondeclarativeMotor skillsNon-conscious operation (indirect) Cognitive skills Simple conditioning Simple associative learning Perceptual representation NondeclarativeVisual word form Auditroy word form Structural description Primary memory Working memoryVisualConscious operation (direct) Auditory SemanticGenericSpatial FactualRelational Knowledge EpisodicPersonal Autobiographical Event memory If you know how to do something Allows you to automatically recognize things See earlier in the semester Factual information (chpt 10) Memory of events
Goal to demonstrate data-driven processing can affect direct tests data-driven processing do not necessarily affect indirect tests Blaxton (1989) Transfer Appropriate Process Data-drivenConceptually-driven DirectGraphic-cued Recall Free Recall IndirectFragment Completion General Knowledge
Target word: bashful graphic-cued recall: looks like bushful free recall frag completion: b_sh_u_ General knowledge: Name one of the 7 dwarfs Blaxton (1989) Data-drivenConceptually-driven DirectGraphic-cued Recall Free Recall IndirectFragment Completion General Knowledge Transfer Appropriate Process Ss saw or heard lists of words (key IV here)
Predictions Systems view : modality match should affect only indirect tests (if indirect tap separate system, then modality should affect them in the same way) for both implicit tests: visual > auditory for both explicit test: visual = auditory Blaxton (1989) Transfer Appropriate Process Data-drivenConceptually-driven DirectGraphic-cued Recall Free Recall IndirectFragment Completion General Knowledge Same pattern of results regardless of modality Visual better than auditory for both
Predictions TAP View : modality match should affect data-driven tasks only. (priming depends on match between study/test processing match & not on indirect vs direct): for both data-driven tests: visual > auditory for both conceptually-driven tests: visual = auditory Blaxton (1989) Transfer Appropriate Process Data-drivenConceptually-driven DirectGraphic-cued Recall Free Recall IndirectFragment Completion General Knowledge Visual...