Raabe - Use of Restored Habitat by Migratory Fishes

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<p>Use of restored habitat by migratory fishes following dam removals on North Carolina riversJoshua K. Raabe Joseph E. Hightower</p> <p>NEUSE RIVER Quaker Neck Dam at rkm 225 Low-head dam, constructed in 1952 Removed in 1998-99VA</p> <p>Milburnie Dam (rkm 352)</p> <p>Raleigh</p> <p>Neuse River</p> <p>SC</p> <p>NC</p> <p>Site of Quaker Neck Dam (rkm 225)</p> <p>0 20 40 Kilometers</p> <p>N</p> <p>FISH SPECIES American shad: Anadromous Focus of restoration efforts Striped bass: Anadromous Important fisheriesMorone saxatilis</p> <p>Alosa sapidissima</p> <p>PRE-DAM REMOVALStriped bass American shad</p> <p>POST-DAM REMOVALStriped bass American shad</p> <p>RIVER DISCHARGE:STRIPED BASS MIGRATIONS2000: Higher Flow YearRaleigh Milburnie Dam</p> <p>Raleigh</p> <p>1999: Lower Flow Year</p> <p>Former Quaker Neck Dam</p> <p>New Bern</p> <p>New Bern</p> <p>PLANKTON SAMPLING:NEUSE RIVER &amp; TRIBSMilburnie Dam</p> <p>Crabtree Creek</p> <p>RaleighLittle River</p> <p>Swift Creek</p> <p>Contentnea Creek</p> <p>Dam Neuse River Site Tributary Site</p> <p>Mill Creek</p> <p>GoldsboroPamlico Sound</p> <p>Former Quaker Neck Dam</p> <p>AMERICAN SHADEggs &amp; LarvaePresent AbsentHawkins 1977 - 1979Quaker Neck Dam</p> <p>Former Quaker Neck Dam</p> <p>Burdick &amp; Hightower 2003</p> <p>Former Quaker Neck Dam</p> <p>Burdick &amp; Hightower 2004</p> <p>STRIPED BASSEggs &amp; LarvaePresent AbsentHawkins 1977 - 1979Quaker Neck Dam</p> <p>Former Quaker Neck Dam</p> <p>Burdick &amp; Hightower 2003</p> <p>Former Quaker Neck Dam</p> <p>Burdick &amp; Hightower 2004</p> <p>RIVER DISCHARGE:AMERICAN SHAD DISTRIBUTION2003 2004</p> <p>RIVER DISCHARGE:STRIPED BASS DISTRIBUTION2003 2004</p> <p>NEUSE RIVER CONCLUSIONSQuaker Neck Dam removal: Immediate response to restored habitat Upper river habitats important for spawning Seasonal flows affect use of restored habitat</p> <p>LITTLE RIVERAtkinson Mill (Present, rkm 82)</p> <p>Neuse River tributary:Buffalo Creek</p> <p> Confluence ~ 212 rkm from Pamlico Sound, NCLowell Mill (2005, rkm 56)</p> <p>Low-head dam history:Little RiverRains Mill (1999, rkm 37)</p> <p> Three removals since 1998 One notched dam Upstream dams present</p> <p>Water Treatment Plant (notched, rkm 7) Cherry Hospital (1998, rkm 3) Neuse River</p> <p>Research amenable: Coverage (~80 rkm) Relatively narrow &amp; shallow</p> <p>FISH SPECIES American shad: Anadromous Focus of restoration efforts Gizzard shad: Potamodromous Migration patterns unstudied Flathead catfish: Potamodromous Invasive top predatorPylodictis olivaris</p> <p>Alosa sapidissima</p> <p>Dorosoma cepedianum</p> <p>FISH WEIR</p> <p>DS Cage Flow</p> <p>Picket</p> <p>S Cage U</p> <p>43 m wide Tagging site Resistance board weir panels:Sustain higher flows, clear debris</p> <p>PASSIVE INTEGRATED TRANSPONDER PIT tags: Small (32 x 4 mm) Long-term Low cost</p> <p> Antennas record tagged fish:PIT tag ID, date &amp; time</p> <p> Antenna dimensions:1.4 m x 10.0 m (narrowest) 0.9 m x 22.0 m (widest)</p> <p>GEAR LOCATIONSAtkinson Mill (Present, rkm 82)</p> <p>PIT antennaBuffalo Creek Lowell Mill (2005, rkm 56)</p> <p>Little RiverRains Mill (1999, rkm 37)</p> <p>Water Treatment Plant (notched, rkm 7) Cherry Hospital (1998, rkm 3) Neuse River</p> <p>Fish weir</p> <p>NOTCHED DAM Located 7 rkm from confluence Notched 1 m in height along middle Antennas: downstream, across, and upstream</p> <p>MIGRATIONSAmerican shad gizzard shad flathead catfish upstream downstream</p> <p>Number of fish</p> <p>Date (2010)</p> <p>MIGRATIONS: FLOWAmerican shad gizzard shad flow flathead catfish</p> <p>Number of fish</p> <p>Flow (m3/sec)</p> <p>Date (2010)</p> <p>MIGRATIONS: FLOWForest Service Antenna (12 rkm)</p> <p>Number of fish</p> <p>Flow (m3/sec)</p> <p>N=521</p> <p>Date (2010)</p> <p>RESTORED HABITAT USEAntenna location (rkm)Dam status: Present</p> <p>Removed Removed</p> <p>Notched Removed</p> <p>Percent</p> <p>RESTORED HABITAT USEAmerican shadAntenna location (rkm)Dam status: Present</p> <p>Removed Removed</p> <p>Notched Removed</p> <p>Percent2009 (N = 195) 2010 (N = 439)</p> <p>RESTORED HABITAT USECherry (3 rkm) American shad Gizzard shad Flathead catfish 100% 100% 100% Rains (36 rkm) 26 39% 49% 4 16% Lowell (56 rkm) 24 31% 45 49% 4 11% Atkinson (82 rkm) 8 15% 31 45% 0 4%</p> <p>RESTORED HABITAT USECherry (3 rkm) American shad Gizzard shad Flathead catfish 100% 100% 100% Rains (36 rkm) 26 39% 49% 4 16% Lowell (56 rkm) 24 31% 45 49% 4 11% Atkinson (82 rkm) 8 15% 31 45% 0 4%</p> <p>RESTORED HABITAT USEgizzard shad, male, 350 mm Atkinson 82 rkm Lowell 56 rkm Rains 36 rkm</p> <p>Flow (m3/sec)</p> <p>Cherry 3 rkm</p> <p>Date (2010)</p> <p>RESTORED HABITAT USECherry (3 rkm) American shad Gizzard shad Flathead catfish 100% 100% 100% Rains (36 rkm) 26 39% 49% 4 16% Lowell (56 rkm) 24 31% 45 49% 4 11% Atkinson (82 rkm) 8 15% 31 45% 0 4%</p> <p>NOTCHED DAM PASSAGESuccessful Passage American shad Gizzard shad Flathead catfish 64 - 77% 82% 72 75% Mean Delay Delay Range (days) (days) 1.3 3.4 2.7 - 5.8 1.3 5.3 </p>