Raabe - Use of Restored Habitat by Migratory Fishes

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Use of restored habitat by migratory fishes following dam removals on North Carolina riversJoshua K. Raabe Joseph E. Hightower

NEUSE RIVER Quaker Neck Dam at rkm 225 Low-head dam, constructed in 1952 Removed in 1998-99VA

Milburnie Dam (rkm 352)

Raleigh

Neuse River

SC

NC

Site of Quaker Neck Dam (rkm 225)

0 20 40 Kilometers

N

FISH SPECIES American shad: Anadromous Focus of restoration efforts Striped bass: Anadromous Important fisheriesMorone saxatilis

Alosa sapidissima

PRE-DAM REMOVALStriped bass American shad

POST-DAM REMOVALStriped bass American shad

RIVER DISCHARGE:STRIPED BASS MIGRATIONS2000: Higher Flow YearRaleigh Milburnie Dam

Raleigh

1999: Lower Flow Year

Former Quaker Neck Dam

New Bern

New Bern

PLANKTON SAMPLING:NEUSE RIVER & TRIBSMilburnie Dam

Crabtree Creek

RaleighLittle River

Swift Creek

Contentnea Creek

Dam Neuse River Site Tributary Site

Mill Creek

GoldsboroPamlico Sound

Former Quaker Neck Dam

AMERICAN SHADEggs & LarvaePresent AbsentHawkins 1977 - 1979Quaker Neck Dam

Former Quaker Neck Dam

Burdick & Hightower 2003

Former Quaker Neck Dam

Burdick & Hightower 2004

STRIPED BASSEggs & LarvaePresent AbsentHawkins 1977 - 1979Quaker Neck Dam

Former Quaker Neck Dam

Burdick & Hightower 2003

Former Quaker Neck Dam

Burdick & Hightower 2004

RIVER DISCHARGE:AMERICAN SHAD DISTRIBUTION2003 2004

RIVER DISCHARGE:STRIPED BASS DISTRIBUTION2003 2004

NEUSE RIVER CONCLUSIONSQuaker Neck Dam removal: Immediate response to restored habitat Upper river habitats important for spawning Seasonal flows affect use of restored habitat

LITTLE RIVERAtkinson Mill (Present, rkm 82)

Neuse River tributary:Buffalo Creek

Confluence ~ 212 rkm from Pamlico Sound, NCLowell Mill (2005, rkm 56)

Low-head dam history:Little RiverRains Mill (1999, rkm 37)

Three removals since 1998 One notched dam Upstream dams present

Water Treatment Plant (notched, rkm 7) Cherry Hospital (1998, rkm 3) Neuse River

Research amenable: Coverage (~80 rkm) Relatively narrow & shallow

FISH SPECIES American shad: Anadromous Focus of restoration efforts Gizzard shad: Potamodromous Migration patterns unstudied Flathead catfish: Potamodromous Invasive top predatorPylodictis olivaris

Alosa sapidissima

Dorosoma cepedianum

FISH WEIR

DS Cage Flow

Picket

S Cage U

43 m wide Tagging site Resistance board weir panels:Sustain higher flows, clear debris

PASSIVE INTEGRATED TRANSPONDER PIT tags: Small (32 x 4 mm) Long-term Low cost

Antennas record tagged fish:PIT tag ID, date & time

Antenna dimensions:1.4 m x 10.0 m (narrowest) 0.9 m x 22.0 m (widest)

GEAR LOCATIONSAtkinson Mill (Present, rkm 82)

PIT antennaBuffalo Creek Lowell Mill (2005, rkm 56)

Little RiverRains Mill (1999, rkm 37)

Water Treatment Plant (notched, rkm 7) Cherry Hospital (1998, rkm 3) Neuse River

Fish weir

NOTCHED DAM Located 7 rkm from confluence Notched 1 m in height along middle Antennas: downstream, across, and upstream

MIGRATIONSAmerican shad gizzard shad flathead catfish upstream downstream

Number of fish

Date (2010)

MIGRATIONS: FLOWAmerican shad gizzard shad flow flathead catfish

Number of fish

Flow (m3/sec)

Date (2010)

MIGRATIONS: FLOWForest Service Antenna (12 rkm)

Number of fish

Flow (m3/sec)

N=521

Date (2010)

RESTORED HABITAT USEAntenna location (rkm)Dam status: Present

Removed Removed

Notched Removed

Percent

RESTORED HABITAT USEAmerican shadAntenna location (rkm)Dam status: Present

Removed Removed

Notched Removed

Percent2009 (N = 195) 2010 (N = 439)

RESTORED HABITAT USECherry (3 rkm) American shad Gizzard shad Flathead catfish 100% 100% 100% Rains (36 rkm) 26 39% 49% 4 16% Lowell (56 rkm) 24 31% 45 49% 4 11% Atkinson (82 rkm) 8 15% 31 45% 0 4%

RESTORED HABITAT USECherry (3 rkm) American shad Gizzard shad Flathead catfish 100% 100% 100% Rains (36 rkm) 26 39% 49% 4 16% Lowell (56 rkm) 24 31% 45 49% 4 11% Atkinson (82 rkm) 8 15% 31 45% 0 4%

RESTORED HABITAT USEgizzard shad, male, 350 mm Atkinson 82 rkm Lowell 56 rkm Rains 36 rkm

Flow (m3/sec)

Cherry 3 rkm

Date (2010)

RESTORED HABITAT USECherry (3 rkm) American shad Gizzard shad Flathead catfish 100% 100% 100% Rains (36 rkm) 26 39% 49% 4 16% Lowell (56 rkm) 24 31% 45 49% 4 11% Atkinson (82 rkm) 8 15% 31 45% 0 4%

NOTCHED DAM PASSAGESuccessful Passage American shad Gizzard shad Flathead catfish 64 - 77% 82% 72 75% Mean Delay Delay Range (days) (days) 1.3 3.4 2.7 - 5.8 1.3 5.3