Recommendations on Statistics of International of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division Statistical…

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<ul><li><p>Department of Economic and Social AffairsStatistics Division</p><p>Statistical Papers Series M, No. 58, Rev. 1</p><p>Recommendations </p><p>on Statistics </p><p>of International Migration</p><p>Revision 1</p><p>United NationsNew York, 1998</p></li><li><p>NOTE</p><p>The designations employed and the presentation of the material in the present publication donot imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nationsconcerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning thedelimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.</p><p>The designations developed and developing economies are intended for statisticalconvenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particularcountry or area in the development process.</p><p>The term country as used in the text and tables of this publication also refers, asappropriate, to territories or areas.</p><p>Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures.Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document.</p><p>ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/58/Rev.1</p><p>UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION</p><p>Sales No. E.98.XVII.14</p><p>ISBN 92-1-161408-2</p><p>Litho in United Nations, New York16330--September 1998--2,845</p><p>ISBN 92-1-161408-2</p><p>Copyright United Nations 1998All rights reserved</p><p>Manufactured in the United States of America</p></li><li><p>PREFACE</p><p>Since 1976, when the United Nations adopted the current set of recommendations onstatistics of international migration (United Nations, 1980a), the worldwide importance ofinternational migration flows has increased markedly, with the result that international migrationissues have gained prominence in both the international agenda and the national agendas of manycountries. All countries of the world have experienced some degree of international migrationand the evidence available suggests that the number of the countries that are the source or thedestination of sizeable migrant outflows or inflows has been rising. Yet, despite the growingimportance of international migration and the concerns it raises, the necessary statistics tocharacterize migration flows, monitor changes over time and provide Governments with a solidbasis for the formulation and implementation of policy are very often lacking. Recognizing theneed to improve international migration statistics, the Statistical Commission requested at itstwenty-seventh session, in 1993, that the current recommendations on statistics of internationalmigration be reviewed. For that purpose, the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) andStatistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) carried out a series of activities thatculminated in a proposed set of revised draft recommendations on statistics of internationalmigration. The United Nations Population Division, the regional commissions, the Office of theUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the International Labour Organization, theOrganisation for International Cooperation and Development, other interested organizations, andrepresentatives of the statistical offices of selected countries collaborated in both reviewingexisting recommendations and making suggestions for their modification.</p><p>The present publication sets forth revised recommendations on statistics of internationalmigrant flows and on the measurement of stocks relevant to the study of international migration.This publication also reviews the major types of data sources yielding statistics on internationalmigration flows and suggests various ways in which they can be used to produce statistics thatbetter comply with the revised definitions recommended. Recognizing that implementation ofthe revised definitions by existing statistical systems will occur gradually, the publicationprovides a means of integrating the varied types of information available through the use of aframework for the reporting of statistical information relevant for the measurement ofinternational migration flows. That framework aims at eliciting the most comprehensive andtransparent picture of human international mobility that may be obtained today.</p><p>This publication also provides special guidelines for the compilation of statistical informationregarding asylum-seekers, a special category of internationally mobile persons whose numericalimportance has been significant in the recent past. Lastly, the publication highlights the need forstatistics on the foreign-born and foreign populations, since both populations are relevant to thestudy of international migration. The role of censuses in gathering such information isunderscored.</p><p>A draft version of this publication was considered by the Statistical Commission at itstwenty-ninth session, in 1997. The Commission adopted the draft after agreeing that a numberof revisions would be incorporated in the text. The publication contains the final revised text ofthe revised recommendations on statistics of international migration. </p></li><li><p>CONTENTS</p><p>Paragraphs Page</p><p>Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii</p><p>Explanatory notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii</p><p>Chapter</p><p>I. NEED FOR REVISION OF THE 1976 RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30 1</p><p>A. Need for better statistics of international migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 1B. Process of review of the 1976 recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17 3C. Current state of statistics of international migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-29 4D. Organization of the present publication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7</p><p>II. DEFINITION OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT FOR THE PURPOSE OF MEASURING FLOWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-83 9</p><p>A. A taxonomy of international inflows and outflows of people . . . . . . . . 38-44 11B. Measurement of international migration according to different data-</p><p>collection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-77 16C. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-83 25</p><p>III. A FRAMEWORK FOR THE COMPILATION OF STATISTICS ON INFLOWS AND OUTFLOWS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84-128 27</p><p>A. Compilation of data on non-migrant flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 28B. Compilation of information on the inflows of international migrant </p><p>foreigners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89-102 28C. Compilation of statistics on changes of status of international </p><p>migrant foreigners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103-110 49D. Compilation of statistics on the outflows of international migrant </p><p>foreigners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111-116 50E. Compilation of statistics on the outflows of international migrant </p><p>citizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117-120 52F. Compilation of statistics on the inflows of international migrant </p><p>citizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121-125 54G. Measurement of short-term migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126-128 59</p><p>IV. INFORMATION NEEDED TO CHARACTERIZE INTERNATIONAL MIGRANTS AND RECOMMENDED TABULATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129-166 61</p><p>A. Recommended information on international migrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132-159 61B. Recommended tabulations on inflows and outflows of international </p><p>migrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160-162 71C. Data and tabulations required on persons regularizing their status . . . . 163-166 75</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS (continued)</p><p>Paragraphs Page</p><p>V. RECOMMENDATIONS ON ASYLUM STATISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167-184 77</p><p>VI. STOCK DATA RELEVANT FOR THE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION . . . . 185-209 83</p><p>A. Definitions and data-collection issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188-204 83B. Recommended tabulations on the foreign and foreign-born </p><p>populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205-209 88</p><p>REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92</p><p>BOXES</p><p>No.</p><p>1. Definition of country of usual residence, of long-term international migrant and of short-term international migrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10</p><p>2. Definitions of the categories included in the taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133. Definitions of the categories of inflows and outflows of non-migrants in table 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 294. Definitions of the categories of inflows, status changes and outflows of international migrant</p><p>foreigners included in tables 3, 4 and 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335. Definitions of the categories used to classify the outflows and inflows of international migrant</p><p>citizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536. Population sub-groups accorded special treatment in population censuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85</p><p>TABLES</p><p>1. Revised taxonomy of international inflows and outflows according to entry status established by receiving State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11</p><p>2. Framework for the compilation of data on non-migrant flows of foreigners and citizens . . . . . . 313. Framework for the compilation of statistics on inflows of international migrant foreigners . . . . 354. Framework for the compilation of statistics on changes of status of international migrant </p><p>foreigners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385. Framework for the compilation of statistics on outflows of international migrant foreigners . . . 446. Framework for the compilation of statistics on outflows of international migrant citizens . . . . . 557. Framework for the compilation of statistics on the inflows of international migrant citizens . . . 578. Core and optional information on different groups of incoming international migrants . . . . . . . . 639. Core and optional information required on different groups of departing international migrants 65</p><p>10. Framework for the presentation of statistics on the process of adjudication of applications for asylum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78</p><p>11. Framework for the tabulation of statistics on the mode of reaching positive decisions on asylum applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79</p><p>12. Framework for the tabulation of the number of asylum applications by status of person filing and decision taken by status of applicant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80</p><p>13. Framework for the tabulation of statistics on the reasons for rejecting applications for asylum or for denying asylum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81</p></li><li><p>Explanatory notes</p><p>Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures.</p><p>The following abbreviations have been used in this publication:</p><p>ECE Economic Commission for EuropeEFTA European Free Trade AssociationEU European UnionEurostat Statistical Office of the European CommunitiesILO International Labour OrganizationIOM International Organization for MigrationOECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentUNHCR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesUNSD United Nations Statistics Division</p></li><li><p>8</p><p>CHAPTER I</p><p>NEED FOR REVISION OF THE 1976 RECOMMENDATIONS</p><p>A. NEED FOR BETTER STATISTICS OF national migration flows has declined since 1976INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION (Bilsborrow and others, 1997). In addition, informa-</p><p>1. Since 1976, when the United Nations adopted tics available is hard to come by and lack of compa-the previous set of recommendations on statistics of rability between the statistics produced by differentinternational migration (United Nations, 1980a), the countries or even between those produced by differ-worldwide importance of international migration ent sources within a single country abounds.flows has increased markedly, with the result thatinternational migration issues have gained promi- 4. Recognizing the need to improve internationalnence in the international agenda. Thus, both the migration statistics, the United Nations StatisticalProgramme of Action of the International Confer- Commission requested at its twenty-seventh sessionence on Population and Development (United Na- that the 1976 recommendations on statistics oftions, 1995a, chap. I, resolution 1, annex) and the international migration be reviewed. The UnitedCopenhagen Declaration on Social Development and Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) and the Statisti-Programme of Action of the World Summit for So- cal Office of the European Communities (Eurostat)cial Development (United Nations, 1996a, chap. I, carried out such a review jointly, in cooperation withresolution 1, annexes I and II) devote considerable the United Nations regional commissions and otherattention to issues related to international migration, interested organizations.and both the Commission on Population and Devel-opment and the General Assembly discussed interna- 5. In addressing the issue of improving statisticstional migration as a special issue during their re- of international migration, it is important to bear inspective sessions in 1997. mind that among all types of spatial mobility, inter-</p><p>2. All countries in the world have experienced ject to State regulation, whether in the country ofsome degree of international migration and the evi- departure, in that of arrival or in both. An intrinsicdence av...</p></li></ul>

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