Reflection of Light Reflection and Refraction of Light Refraction of Light
Definitions Incident wave-_____________________________________. _______________wave that is bounced away from the surface. Refracted-_________________________________________. ________ ___________ __________-an optical phenomenon that occurs when a ray of light strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. ________ ________-the angle of incidence above which total internal reflection occurs. ____________- to a flat surface is a vector that is perpendicular to that surface. To a non-flat surface at a point P on the surface is a vector perpendicular to the tangent plane to that surface at P.
Reflection The production of an ________ by or as if by a ________. Something, such as ______, _______ _____, ______, or an _______, that is reflected. The change in ________ of a wave, such as a light or sound wave, away from a boundary the wave encounters. Reflected waves ______ in their original medium rather than _______ the medium they encounter.
Reflection According to the ____ __ ______, the angle of reflection of a reflected wave is equal to its angle of incidence.
Diffuse Reflection Light is reflected in ___ ____________. This is caused by a surface that isnt _______.
Specular reflection All the light travelling in ___ direction and reflecting from the mirror is reflected in ___ direction. This occurs on a ______ surface.
Definitions _____ _____- the single point where light from the object hits or is focused. Located half the distance from the mirror to the center of curvature. _____ _____-the distance from the reflecting surface to the focal point. _____- formed when the incident and reflected rays intersect in front of the mirror. ________- does not actually exist (no light is produced). Occur at points where extensions from incident and reflected rays converge behind the mirror. _______ of Curvature- the ______ of that original sphere. _______ of Curvature- the ______ of the sphere. _____- the point where the mirror crosses the principal axis. _________ ____- a line drawn through the vertex, focus and center of curvature.
Plane Mirrors Just kidding
Plane Mirrors A mirror with a flat surface Properties of an image in a plane mirror The image is ________ The image is the ______ size as the object The image is the ______ distance from the mirror as the object appears to be The image is _______, not _______, because the light rays do not actually pass through the image.
Spherical Mirrors A piece cut out of a reflective sphere. Focal length of a spherical mirror: f=R/2 Either _______ or ______.
Convex Mirrors or Diverging Mirror Image is _______ and _______. Used for security in stores and on the passenger side of many cars. Light rays that strike the mirror surface are reflected so that they _______, or go apart, and they never come to a point. The focal length is ________. The object and focus are on ___________ sides of the mirror. All images are _______ than the object.
Rules of Reflection for Convex Mirrors Any incident ray traveling ________ to the principal axis on the way to a convex mirror will reflect in such a manner that its extension will pass _______ the focal point. Any incident ray traveling _______ a convex mirror such that its extension passes through the focal point will reflect and travel ________ to the principal axis. Any incident ray which is directed _______ the center of curvature of the mirror is ________ back along its ____ path.
Concave Mirror or Converging Mirror Can have either ____ or _______ images. Light rays that strike the mirror surface are reflected so that they ________, or come together, at a point. Focal length is ________. The object and the focus are on the _____ side of the mirror.
Rules of Reflection for Concave Mirrors Any incident ray traveling ________ to the principal axis on the way to the mirror will pass through the _____ _____upon reflection. Any incident ray passing through the _____ _____ on the way to the mirror will travel parallel to the ________ ____upon reflection.
The Mirror Equation 1/_+_/d i =1/_ d o is the distance from the mirror to the object d i is the distance from the mirror to the image f is the focal length of the mirror
Magnification In most cases the height of the image _______ from the height of the object. This means that the mirror has done some _________ or ________.
Magnification M=h i /__=__/d o The ratio of the image height to the object height, which is closely related to the ratio of the image distance to the object distance.
Magnification M=h i /__=__/d o If magnification is __ then the object and the image are the same size. If m__1 then the image is larger. If m__1 then the image is smaller. If m__0 then the image is upright and if m__0 then the image is inverted.
Refraction The change of direction of a ray of _____, _____, ____, or the like, in passing obliquely from one medium into another in which its wave velocity is _________. The change in the _____ of propagation depends on the __________ between the index of refraction of the original medium and the medium entered by the wave, as well as on the _________ of the wave.
Refraction The speed of light in a vacuum is ______________. When light travels through a different material, it travels at ____________ speed.
Index of RefractionIndex of Refraction The speed of light in a given material is related to a quantity called the _____ __ _________, n. Index of refraction: n=_/v The ratio of the speed of light (_) in a vacuum to the speed of light in the medium (_). The _________ changes as well. Index of refraction in terms of wavelength N=_/ m where _ is the wavelength in vacuum and m is the wavelength in the medium
Refraction Although the _____ changes and wavelength _______, the frequency will be ________. Frequency, wavelength, and speed are related by: V=_
Snells Law The relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction and the ________ of refraction of the two media. n 1 _____=n 2 sin 2 or sin 1 /sin 2 =__/v 2
Definitions ____- a carefully ground or molded piece of transparent material that refracts light rays in such a way as to form an image. _________ axis- the __________ axis. __ _____- the point on the principal axis that is twice as far from the vertical axis as the focal point.
Converging Lenses A lens that _________ rays of light that are traveling ________ to its principal axis.
Diverging Lenses A lens that ________ rays of light that are traveling parallel to its _________ axis.
Double Convex Lens The fact that a double convex lens is _______ across its middle is an indicator that it will converge rays of light that travel parallel to its principal axis.
Double Concave Lens The fact that the double concave lens is _______ across its middle is an indicator that it will diverge rays of light that travel parallel to its principal axis.
Any incident ray traveling parallel to the principal axis of a converging lens will _______ through the lens and travel through the _____ point on the opposite side of the lens. Any incident ray traveling through the _____ _____ on the way to the lens will refract through the lens and travel parallel to the principal axis. Refraction Rules for a Converging Lens
Any incident ray traveling towards the focal point on the way to the lens will refract _______ the lens and travel ________ to the principal axis. Any incident ray traveling parallel to the principal axis of a diverging lens will _______ through the lens and travel in line with the focal point (i.e., in a direction such that its extension will pass through the focal point). Refraction Rules for a Diverging Lens
A Third Rule of Refraction An incident ray that passes through the _____ of the lens will in affect ________ in the ____ direction that it had when it entered the lens.
Converging Lens Image Formation Can produce real ___ virtual images.
Object-Image Relations for Diverging Lens
Object-Image Relations for Converging Lens If the object is located ______ 2F: If the object is located __ 2F: If the object is located _______ 2F and _: If the object is located __ F: If the object is located __ _____ __ F:
Diverging Lens Image Formation Can only produce virtual images.