Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, Cooperative Research Report...آ  ICES Advisory

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  • ICES COOPERATIVE RESEARCH REPORT

    RAPPORT DES RECHERCHES COLLECTIVES

    NO. 254

    Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Ecosystems,

    2002

    Copenhagen, 7–11 June 2002

    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Conseil International pour l’Exploration de la Mer

    Palægade 2–4 DK-1261 Copenhagen K Denmark

    December 2002

    ISSN 1017-6195

  • For purposes of citation, the 2002 ACE Report should be cited as follows:

    ICES. 2002. Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Ecosystems, 2002. ICES Cooperative Research Report, 254. 129 pp.

    For permission to reproduce material from ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 254, please apply to the General Secretary.

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section Page

    LIST OF MEMBERS .......................................................................................................................................................... I

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................II

    1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................................... 1

    2 SMALL CETACEAN BY-CATCH IN FISHERIES................................................................................................. 2 2.1 Information on by-catch of cetaceans ............................................................................................................. 2

    2.1.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 2 2.1.2 Gill nets............................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1.3 Tuna driftnets.................................................................................................................................... 3 2.1.4 Pelagic trawls.................................................................................................................................... 3 2.1.5 Other fisheries................................................................................................................................... 4

    2.2 New information on cetacean populations ...................................................................................................... 4 2.2.1 Most recent abundance estimates...................................................................................................... 4

    2.3 Possible limitations on use of gear, time/area closures ................................................................................... 4 2.3.1 Background....................................................................................................................................... 4 2.3.2 Celtic Sea bottom-set gillnets ........................................................................................................... 5 2.3.3 Western Channel/Bay of Biscay pelagic trawls ................................................................................ 5 2.3.4 Eastern central North Sea wreck fisheries ........................................................................................ 5 2.3.5 Kattegat............................................................................................................................................. 7 2.3.6 Baltic Sea .......................................................................................................................................... 7

    2.4 General use of pingers in fixed gear ............................................................................................................... 7 2.4.1 Background....................................................................................................................................... 7 2.4.2 Principles for the use of pingers........................................................................................................ 7 2.4.3 Potential advantages and disadvantages of a generalized use of pingers in fixed gear ..................... 8

    2.4.3.1 Ease of use by fishers....................................................................................................... 8 2.4.3.2 Effects on targeted fish species ........................................................................................ 8 2.4.3.3 Exclusion of cetaceans from habitat ................................................................................ 8 2.4.3.4 Habituation....................................................................................................................... 9

    2.4.4 Technical specifications affecting the effectiveness of pingers ........................................................ 9 2.4.4.1 Signal ............................................................................................................................... 9 2.4.4.2 Reliability and longevity.................................................................................................. 9 2.4.4.3 Ease of use and cost ......................................................................................................... 9 2.4.4.4 Spacing of pingers............................................................................................................ 9 2.4.4.5 Enforcement..................................................................................................................... 9 2.4.4.6 Balancing technical specifications ................................................................................... 9

    2.4.5 Summary........................................................................................................................................... 9 2.4.6 Areas suitable for pinger scheme implementation .......................................................................... 10

    2.4.6.1 Western English Channel and Celtic Shelf .................................................................... 11 2.4.6.2 Channel and Southern Bight of the North Sea ............................................................... 11 2.4.6.3 Central/southern North Sea (including coastal) ............................................................. 11 2.4.6.4 Northern North Sea ........................................................................................................ 11 2.4.6.5 Skagerrak, Kattegat, and the Belt Seas .......................................................................... 12 2.4.6.6 Baltic Sea ....................................................................................................................... 12

    2.5 General use of pingers or other modifications in pelagic trawls ................................................................... 12 2.5.1 CETASEL....................................................................................................................................... 12 2.5.2 UK tests in 2001/2002 .................................................................................................................... 12 2.5.3 Use of pingers ................................................................................................................................. 13 2.5.4 Time of day..................................................................................................................................... 13

    2.6 Other possible mitigation measures .............................................................................................................. 13 2.6.1 Overall effort reduction................................................................................................................... 13 2.6.2 Mitigation plans for individual fisheries ......................................................................................... 13 2.6.3 Protected areas ................................................................................................................................ 13 2.6.4 “Reflective” gillnets........................................................................................................................ 13 2.6.5 Lost nets.......................................................................................................................................... 14 2.6.6 Technical measures with regard to gear specification and deployment .......................................... 14

    2.7 Recommendations......................................................................................................................................... 14

    i

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section Page

    3 DISTRIBUTION OF COLD-WATER CORALS IN THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC IN RELATION TO FISHERIES.............................................................................................................................................................. 18 3.1 Distribution of Lophelia pertusa ................................................................................................................... 18

    3.1.1 Norway ........................................................................................................................................... 18 3.1.2 Faroes.............................................................................................................................................. 19 3.1.3 Iceland...............................................................................................

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