Robot Manipulators Trends and Development

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Robot Manipulators, Trends and Development

Robot Manipulators, Trends and Development

Edited by

Prof. Dr. Agustn Jimnez and Dr. Basil M. Al Hadithi

In-Tech

intechweb.org

Published by In-Teh In-Teh Olajnica 19/2, 32000 Vukovar, Croatia Abstracting and non-profit use of the material is permitted with credit to the source. Statements and opinions expressed in the chapters are these of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of information contained in the published articles. Publisher assumes no responsibility liability for any damage or injury to persons or property arising out of the use of any materials, instructions, methods or ideas contained inside. After this work has been published by the In-Teh, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are an author or editor, and the make other personal use of the work. 2010 In-teh www.intechweb.org Additional copies can be obtained from: publication@intechweb.org First published March 2010 Printed in India Technical Editor: Sonja Mujacic Cover designed by Dino Smrekar Robot Manipulators, Trends and Development, Edited by Prof. Dr. Agustn Jimnez and Dr. Basil M. Al Hadithi p. cm. ISBN 978-953-307-073-5

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PrefaceThis book presents the most recent research advances in robot manipulators. It offers a complete survey to the kinematic and dynamic modelling, simulation, computer vision, software engineering, optimization and design of control algorithms applied for robotic systems. It is devoted for a large scale of applications, such as manufacturing, manipulation, medicine and automation. Several control methods are included such as optimal, adaptive, robust, force, fuzzy and neural network control strategies. The trajectory planning is discussed in details for point-to-point and path motions control. The results in obtained in this book are expected to be of great interest for researchers, engineers, scientists and students, in engineering studies and industrial sectors related to robot modelling, design, control, and application. The book also details theoretical, mathematical and practical requirements for mathematicians and control engineers. It surveys recent techniques in modelling, computer simulation and implementation of advanced and intelligent controllers. This book is the result of the effort by a number of contributors involved in robotics fields. The aim is to provide a wide and extensive coverage of all the areas related to the most up to date advances in robotics. The authors have approached a good balance between the necessary mathematical expressions and the practical aspects of robotics. The organization of the book shows a good understanding of the issues of high interest nowadays in robot modelling, simulation and control. The book demonstrates a gradual evolution from robot modelling, simulation and optimization to reach various robot control methods. These two trends are finally implemented in real applications to examine their effectiveness and validity. Editors:

Prof. Dr. Agustn Jimnez and Dr. Basil M. Al Hadithi

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ContentsPreface 1. OptimalUsageofRobotManipulatorsBehnamKamrani,ViktorBerbyuk,DanielWppling,XiaolongFengandHansAndersson

V 001 027 043 073 101

2. ROBOTICMODELLINGANDSIMULATION:THEORYANDAPPLICATIONMuhammadIkhwanJambak,HabibollahHaron,HelmeeIbrahimandNorhazlanAbdHamid

3. RobotSimulationforControlDesignLeonlajpah

4. ModelingofaOneFlexibleLinkManipulatorMohamadSaad

5. MotionControlSangchulWonandJinwookSeok

6. GlobalStiffnessOptimizationofParallelRobotsUsing KinetostaticPerformanceIndicesDanZhang

125

7. MeasurementAnalysisandDiagnosisforRobotManipulatorsusing AdvancedNonlinearControlTechniquesAmrPertew,Ph.D,P.Eng.,HoracioMarquez,Ph.D,P.EngandQingZhao,Ph.D,P.Eng

139 165 213

8. CartesianControlforRobotManipulatorsPabloSnchez-SnchezandFernandoReyes-Corts

9. BiomimeticImpedanceControlofanEMG-BasedRoboticHandToshioTsuji,KeisukeShima,NanBuandOsamuFukuda

10. AdaptiveRobustControllerDesignsAppliedtoFree-FloatingSpace ManipulatorsinTaskSpaceTatianaPazelli,MarcoTerraandAdrianoSiqueira

231 249 267

11. NeuralandAdaptiveControlStrategiesforaRigidLinkManipulatorDorinPopescu,DanSeliteanu,CosminIonete,MonicaRomanandLiviaPopescu

12. ControlofFlexibleManipulators.TheoryandPracticePereira,E.;Becedas,J.;Payo,I.;Ramos,F.andFeliu,V.

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13. Fuzzylogicpositioningsystemofelectro-pneumaticservo-driveJakubE.Takosoglu,RyszardF.DindorfandPawelA.Laski

297

14. TeleoperationSystemofIndustrialArticulatedRobot ArmsbyUsingForcefreeControlSatoruGoto

321 335 361

15. TrajectoryGenerationforMobileManipulatorsFoudilAbdessemedandSalimaDjebrani

16. TrajectoryControlofRobotManipulatorsUsingaNeuralNetworkControllerZhao-HuiJiang

17. PerformanceEvaluationofAutonomousContourFollowingAlgorithmsforIndustrial Robot 377AntonSatriaPrabuwono,SamsiMd.Said,M.A.BurhanuddinandRizaSulaiman

18. AdvancedDynamicPathControloftheThreeLinksSCARAusingAdaptiveNeuro FuzzyInferenceSystem 399PrabuD,SurendraKumarandRajendraPrasad

19. TopologicalMethodsforSingularity-FreePath-PlanningDavidePaganelli

413 441

20. Vision-based2Dand3DControlofRobotManipulatorsLuisHernndez,HichemSahliandRenGonzlez

21. UsingObjectsContourandFormtoEmbedRecognitionCapabilityintoIndustrial RobotsI.Lopez-Juarez,M.Pea-CabreraandA.V.Reyes-Acosta

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22. Autonomous3DShapeModelingandGraspPlanningfor HandlingUnknownObjectsYamazakiKimitoshi,MasahiroTomonoandTakashiTsubouchi

479 497

23. OpenSoftwareStructureforControllingIndustrialRobotManipulatorsFlavioRoberti,CarlosSoria,EmanuelSlawiski,VicenteMutandRicardoCarelli

24. MiniatureModularManufacturingSystemsandEfficiencyAnalysisoftheSystems 521NozomuMishima,KondohShinsuke,KiwamuAshidaandShizukaNakano

25. ImplementationofanIntelligentRobotizedGMAWWeldingCell, Part1:DesignandSimulationI.Davila-Rios,I.Lopez-Juarez,LuisMartinez-MartinezandL.M.Torres-Trevio

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26. ImplementationofanIntelligentRobotizedGMAWWeldingCell, Part2:IntuitivevisualprogrammingtoolfortrajectorylearningI.Lopez-Juarez,R.Rios-CabreraandI.Davila-Rios

563

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27. DynamicBehaviorofaPneumaticManipulatorwithTwoDegreesofFreedomJuanManuelRamos-Arreguin,EfrenGorrostieta-Hurtado,JesusCarlosPedraza-Ortega, RenedeJesusRomero-Troncoso,Marco-AntonioAcevesandSandraCanchola

575

28. DexterousRoboticManipulationofDeformableObjectswith Multi-SensoryFeedback-aReviewFouadF.KhalilandPierrePayeur

587

29. Taskanalysisandkinematicdesignofanovelroboticchairfor themanagementoftop-shelfvertigoGiovanniBerselli,GianlucaPalli,RiccardoFalconi,GabrieleVassura andClaudioMelchiorri

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30. AWire-DrivenParallelSuspensionSystemwith8Wires(WDPSS-8) forLow-SpeedWindTunnelsYaqingZHENG,QiLIN1andXiongweiLIU

647

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OptimalUsageofRobotManipulators

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Optimal Usage of Robot ManipulatorsBehnam Kamrani1, Viktor Berbyuk2, Daniel Wppling3, Xiaolong Feng4 and Hans Andersson42Chalmers 1MSC.Software

Sweden AB, SE-42 677, Gothenburg University of Technology, SE-412 96, Gothenburg 3ABB Robotics, SE-78 168, Vsters 4ABB Corporate Research, SE-72178, Vsters Sweden

1. IntroductionRobot-based automation has gained increasing deployment in industry. Typical application examples of industrial robots are material handling, machine tending, arc welding, spot welding, cutting, painting, and gluing. A robot task normally consists of a sequence of the robot tool center point (TCP) movements. The time duration during which the sequence of the TCP movements is completed is referred to as cycle time. Minimizing cycle time implies increasing the productivity, improving machine utilization, and thus making automation affordable in applications for which throughput and cost effectiveness is of major concern. Considering the high number of task runs within a specific time span, for instance one year, the importance of reducing cycle time in a small amount such as a few percent will be more understandable. Robot manipulators can be expected to achieve a variety of optimum objectives. While the cycle time optimization is among the areas which have probably received the most attention so far, the other application aspects such as energy efficiency, lifetime of the manipulator, and even the environment aspect have also gained increasing focus. Also, in recent era virtual product development technology has been inevitably and enormously deployed toward achieving optimal solutions. For example, off-line programming of robotic workcells has become a valuable means for work-cell designers to investigate the manipulators workspace to achieve optimality in cycle time, energy consumption and manipulator lifetime. This chapter is devoted to introduce new approaches for optimal usage of robots. Section 2 is dedicated to the approaches resulted from translational and rotational repositioning of a robot path in its workspace based on response surface method to achieve optimal cycle time. Section 3 covers another proposed approach that uses a multi-objective optimization methodology, in which the position of task and the settings of drive-train components of a robot manipulator are optimized simultaneously to understand the trade-off among cycle time, lifetime of critical drive-train components, and energy efficiency. In both section 2 and 3, results of different case studies comprising several industrial robots performing different

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RobotManipulators,TrendsandDevelopment

tasks are presented to evaluate the developed methodol

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