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READ 180 Professional Development 220 Rules to Know: Suffixes and Endings Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 VC + ending that begins with a vowel = double the final consonant silent e + ending that begins with a vowel = drop the silent e consonant-y + ending that begins with a vowel = change y to i (except -ing) Explanation: When a word ends with a short vowel followed by a single consonant, double the final consonant before adding a suffix or ending that begins with a vowel (hopped, running, muddy). Explanation: When a word ends with a silent e, drop the e before adding a suffix or ending that starts with a vowel. (racing, finer) Explanation: When a word ends with a consonant and y, change the y to i before adding a suffix or ending that starts with a vowel, except for -ing. (dutiful, luckily, muddier, dried, babies, crying) Spelling Routines Make routines a consistent and regular part of classroom spelling instruction and practice. Use routines to meet student needs based on error types and words listed on READ 180 Spelling Skills Grouping Reports. Compile additional spelling lists from Topic Software Passages, Paperbacks, read-alouds, and content-area texts. Model new routines until students can work independently. Display routine steps as a reminder for students. Adding Suffixes and Endings Teach students who need support adding suffixes and endings to follow spelling rules. Guided Practice 1. Write a model sentence with a word that requires an ending. For example: Yesterday, Mom hum___ as she worked. 2. Point out that the word hum is a verb. It needs the ending -ed added in order to form the past tense. 3. Tell students there are spelling rules to follow when adding endings such as -ed. Provide the explanation given for Rule 1 below. Then write the short version of Rule 1 and have students read it chorally. 4. Point to the short vowel u in hum, followed by the consonant m. 5. Help students apply the rule and change the word hum to hummed. 6. Repeat the routine with another sentence. For example: Mom was hum____ as she worked. Use the routine with these and other rules: Purpose Rules provide a scaffold that can help students spell words with suffixes and added endings. Why Use Spelling Routines? Regularuseofroutineshelps studentsimproveproficiencyand developgoodspellingstudyhabits. Spelling Routines

Routines Spelling Routines

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Rules to Know: Suffixes and Endings
Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3
VC + ending that begins with a vowel = double the final consonant
silent e + ending that begins with a vowel = drop the silent e
consonant-y + ending that begins with a vowel = change y to i (except -ing)
Explanation: When a word ends with a short vowel followed by a single consonant, double the final consonant before adding a suffix or ending that begins with a vowel (hopped, running, muddy).
Explanation: When a word ends with a silent e, drop the e before adding a suffix or ending that starts with a vowel. (racing, finer)
Explanation: When a word ends with a consonant and y, change the y to i before adding a suffix or ending that starts with a vowel, except for -ing. (dutiful, luckily, muddier, dried, babies, crying)
Spelling Routines Make routines a consistent and regular part of classroom spelling instruction and practice. Use routines to meet student needs based on error types and words listed on READ 180 Spelling Skills Grouping Reports. Compile additional spelling lists from Topic Software Passages, Paperbacks, read-alouds, and content-area texts. Model new routines until students can work independently. Display routine steps as a reminder for students.
Adding Suffixes and Endings Teach students who need support adding suffixes and endings to follow spelling rules.
Guided Practice 1. Write a model sentence with a word that requires an ending.
For example: Yesterday, Mom hum___ as she worked.
2. Point out that the word hum is a verb. It needs the ending -ed added in order to form the past tense.
3. Tell students there are spelling rules to follow when adding endings such as -ed. Provide the explanation given for Rule 1 below. Then write the short version of Rule 1 and have students read it chorally.
4. Point to the short vowel u in hum, followed by the consonant m.
5. Help students apply the rule and change the word hum to hummed.
6. Repeat the routine with another sentence. For example: Mom was hum____ as she worked.
Use the routine with these and other rules:
Purpose Rules provide a scaffold that can help students spell words with suffixes and added endings.
Why Use Spelling Routines? • Regularuseofroutineshelps
studentsimproveproficiencyand developgoodspellingstudyhabits.
Spelling
Routines
Repeated Writing Teach students who add, omit, substitute, or reverse letters to write, rewrite, and check the letters in words.
Guided Practice Have students:
1. Fold a sheet of lined paper vertically to make four columns.
2. Write the first word correctly on the first line of the first column.
3. Fold back the first column and write the word in column two.
4. Look at column one again, and compare the spelling of the words letter by letter.
5. Write the word in columns three and four, checking each time to see if there are any errors.
6. Continue with the next word.
Variation Have partners exchange papers and proofread for errors.
Word Building Teach students who need support spelling longer words to build words by adding affixes to a familiar base word.
Guided Practice Explain to students that if they know how to spell a base word, it is easy to spell words formed from the base word. Model these steps for students to follow:
1. Write the base word visit on the board.
2. Write the formula re- + visit = ________. Ask students to identify the word that is formed by adding the prefix re- to visit. (revisit)
3. Fill in the equation with revisit and use it in a sentence. (Let’s revisit this text.)
4. Discuss how the meaning of the base word visit changes when the prefix re- is added. (to visit again)
5. Repeat the steps with revisited. Write revisit + -ed = ______. (revisited) Use the new word in a sentence. (We revisited the text.) Explain the meaning. (visited again in the past)
6. Repeat the procedure with visitor. Write visit + -or = _______. (visitor) Say the new word in a sentence. (The visitor stayed one hour.) Explain the meaning. (one who visits)
Variation Make word cards with base words. Have students use the cards to build words by adding as many prefixes and suffixes as possible and writing a list of the new words.
Resource Links
Purpose Repeated writing provides practice in spelling letter-by-letter. This routine supports recognition of individual letters and develops the habit of precise, visual checking.
Purpose Word building helps develop spelling and vocabulary. Students gain confidence in spelling words with common roots or bases and also become accustomed to breaking down words into parts.
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READ 180 Spelling Routines
READ 180 Professional Development222
Hear/Say...See/Write Teach students who make errors in words with consonant blends, r-controlled vowels, or common spelling patterns to listen for every sound in a word.
Guided Practice 1. Hear/Say: Say the word stop, emphasizing the initial sounds. Tell students
to listen and repeat the word. Say it again and ask how the word begins (/st/) and how many sounds they hear in /st/. (two)
2. See/Write: Write stop on the board. Underline the letters that stand for the initial sounds. (s, t) Erase the letters s and t and say -op. Fill in the s and t to complete the word, and say it aloud: stop.
3. Repeat the routine with the word most to model spelling words with final consonant blends.
Variation Use the routine with these examples.
Proofreading Teach students who misspell sight words, words with diphthongs, digraphs, or r-controlled vowels how to find and correct spelling errors.
Guided Practice Model this routine for students to follow:
1. Display words from the students’ READ 180 Spelling Zone reports.
2. Write one of the words in a sentence and underline it. For example, kind: The kind man smiled.
3. Model how to proofread the word in the following ways.
a. letter-by-letter (k-i-n-d) b. checking the spelling of beginning and end sounds (/k/; /nd/) c. looking for familiar word parts (-ind) d. noticing the visual pattern of the word (tall/short/short/tall)
Variation •• Have partners exchange a paragraph of their recent writing and proofread
for errors.
•• Show students that when proofreading connected text, one way to find errors is to read each sentence backwards word by word.
Words With 3-Letter Blends Words With Initial/Final Blends
string scream splash spray
blank stunt twist crisp
Purpose Students learn that correct spelling is dependent upon the relationship between sounds and the letters that stand for them.
Purpose Proofreading helps students develop the habit of visualizing words.
Spelling
Dictation Guide students who need help identifying letter omissions, additions, substitutions, and reversals to practice spelling words that you dictate.
Guided Practice 1. Prepare a list of words based on the students’ READ 180 Spelling Zone
reports, high-frequency words, or other words.
2. Dictate a word and have students repeat it. Then use it in a sentence and tell students to write the word.
3. Model the correct spelling of the word. Have students proofread and make corrections.
4. Progress to dictating phrases and short sentences.
Variation Display the dictation on the board. Read it chorally with students. Cover the words. Have students write what they saw and heard.
Matching and Sorting Words Teach students who repeatedly misrepresent specific sounds to match and sort words with the same sound-spellings.
Guided Practice
1. List several words with the /a/ sound. Use words from the students’ READ 180 Spelling Zone reports. For example, blaze and painting.
2. Chorally read the words with students, pointing to the letters that stand for each /a/ sound. Say the letters aloud. (a–e, ai)
3. Guide students to circle the various spellings for /a/ in each word.
4. Create a chart, writing a word from the list at the top of each column.
5. List several additional words with /a/, one at a time.
6. Have volunteers add each word to the chart in the correct column according to its spelling for long a. Continue until all the words have been matched and sorted.
Variation Repeat this routine with other sound-spellings as necessary.
Sample Sound-Spelling Patterns
/e/ ee —beet, meet, asleep, freedom ea —leaf, clean, dream, eagle y —happy, library, history, busy ey —turkey, key, alley, journey
/i/ i-e —mine, wide, decide, polite y —rhyme, reply, type, sky i —blind, climb, triangle, spider igh — fight, twilight, knight,
sunlight
Purpose Dictation develops the encoding skills necessary for correct spelling.
Purpose Matching and sorting supports visual learning of sound-spelling variations. It also supports students’ awareness of the connection between sounds and spellings.
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