Safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants

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  • 15 Environment (pollution, health protection, safetyl

    95to3091 mine fires

    Ranking factora impacting survival during coal

    Kissell, F. N. er al., Trans. Sot. Min. Metall, Explor., 1994, 294, 1077-1083. This study ranks the factors impacting survival during a coal mine fire. It has already been established that reducing time delays is the most impor- tant factor in saving lives. Consequently, every event during a fire is mea- sured in terms of its duration, and the effectiveness of any action taken to improve survival is measured in terms of the time it saves. The authors found that by ranking actions according to time saved, a combination of actions was most effective. This combination was to install lifelines, mod- erately decreasing air leakage, and decreasing the fire growth rate. Chang- ing ventilation leakage alone was much less effective, as was altering the carbon monoxide, sensor alarm threshold.

    95/03092 Removal of H S from tures using MnO/gamma-A7 0

    fuel gases at hlgh tempera-

    Atakul, H. et al., Fuel, Feb. 1593, 74, (2), 187-191. High temperature desulphurization of gases from coal gasification processes has important aspects for many industrial applications and elec- trical power generation plants. MnO, su ported (MnO/gamma-Al,O,), was used as a regenerab P

    by gamma-Al,O, e sorbent for high tempera-

    ture removal of H,S from gases. The sorbent was prepared by wet impreg- nation and tested by successive sulphidation regeneration cycles. Sulphidation was carried out at 600C with an Nfi#I,S mixture contain- ing 1.41-4.48% H,S.

    95103093 Removal of volatlle metals from synthesis gas Baker, D. C. and Gognat, J. W. (Assigned to) Shell Oil Co., PCT. Int. WO.94,22,563, Oct. 1994.

    95lO3101 Slnks and rnvlronmental Impacts for atmospheric carbon monoxide Badr, 0. and Probert, S. D. Applied Energy, 1995, 50, (4), 339-372. Carbon monoxide is one of the main reactive trace. gases in the earths atmosphere: it influences the atmospheric chemistry as well as the climate. In order to evaluate the atmospheric budget for carbon monoxide, a knowl- edge of its destruction/uptake rates by the individual sinks is required. In this study, the authors current understanding of sinks for atmospheric carbon monoxide is discussed. Although the major sinks have been rdenti- fied, estimates for their strengths are still uncertain. Experimental data are avatlable for only a few locations? and more measurements in representa- tive regions world-wide are reqmred in order to evaluate the CO global budget more accurately. The authors current understanding of the environ- mental impacts of carbon monoxide is reviewed.

    95103102 Sludge/ash contamlnstlon. Sewage treatment plants need to assess rsdloactlvlty Zeyher, A. Nuclear News, Mar. 1995, 38, (3), 55-56. The author reports on the extent of radioactive contamination at sewage treatment plants. The contamination at plants remains unknown, and most sewage treaters are still unaware of the problem, according to a report from the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO).

    95103103 Solld low-level waste management guldellnes TR.104583, Final Report RP2414-66, $lO,OOO.OO, EPRI Distribution

    Center, 207 Coggins Dr., PO Box 23205, Pleasant Hill, CA.94523.

    95103104 Sorbent capture of nickel, lead, and cadmium In a 95103094 Research and Cen, K. et al., Meitan Zhuan R

    respects on clean utlllratlon of coal ua, 1994, 17, (3), 16-22. (In Chinese)

    The paper discusses clean coal technology.

    95/03095 Role of facllltated transport In the emlsslons of secondary raw materials Steketee, J. J. et al., Stud Environ. Sci., 1994, 60, 507-517.

    laboratory swirl flame lnclnerator Linak, W. P. et al., Combustion & Flame, Jan. 1995, 100, (I), 241-250. The in w tch the high temperatures of practical incinerators might be exploited g*

    urpose of this research was to investigate sorbent injection processes

    to transform potentially toxic metals into constituents that are both more easily collected and more environmentally benign than metal effluents in the absence of combustion modifications.

    95103096 The role of multlple regresslon of exploratory data analysis In the development of leukemia lncldence risk models for comparison of radlonucllde air stack emissions from nuclear and coal power lndustrles Prybutok, V. R. Environ. PoZlut., 1995, 87, (l), 77-83. Radionuclide air stack emissions for a single coal plant and a single nuclear plant were used to compute single plant leukaemia incidence rtsk and total industry leukaemia incidence risk.

    95103097 Safety assessment of the thermal Influence upon the host rock of the planned Konrad repository Berg, H. P. et aZ., Kerntechnik, Feb. 1995, 60, (1). 56-61. The safety assessment of the thermal influence upon the host rock is part of the comprehensive safety assessment for a repository. The effects of the decay heat generated by the emplaced radioactive waste must be thor- oughly analysed. Based on the plannings for the Konrad repository, a facil- ity-for the his

    P osal of radioactive waste with negligible heat generation,

    calculations o the thermal influence upon the host rock have been carried out, and resulting requirements on the emplacement of waste packages have been derived. The procedure and the results are described in this

    95103105 Sources and effects of lonlzlng radlatlon United Nations Publications, Sales Section, 2 United Nations Plaro, Room

    DC2-853, New York, Ny.10017, USA, $45.00, 272 pp. This 1994 report produces the results from an UNSCEAR review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation.

    95103106 Stablllzlng of dust formlng surface of spent mate- rlal wlth gossypol resin emulsion Valiev, N. G. IN. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Corn. Zh., 1994, (l), 38-40. (In Russian) Describes how emulsion was applied to open-pit coal mining wastes at a rate of 3 Urn to produce a 12 mm layer of solidified material thus prevent- ing dusting. The solidified surface was suitable for recultivation.


    95103096 Safety of Soviet-deslgned nuclear power plants Rippon, S. Nuclear News, Jan. 1995, 38, (l), 25-27. A report on the Second Workshop on the Safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants held in Washington, D.C., 11-13 November, prior to

    95103107 Studies on NO, reduction of plate mill furnaces In Chlna Steel Corporatlon Teng, H. and Huang, T. S. Jishu Yu Xunlian, 1994, 19, (l), 42-52. (In Chinese) Describes how two furnaces, burning coke-oven gas, were used to heat up slabs in the plate mill of China Steel Corporation. Previous tests showed that NO, emitted from the No. 1 furnace exceeded the 1993 standard, which is 150 ppm at 6% oxygen content. However, NO, emissions for the No. 2 furnace, which was equipped with a flue gas recirculation system was controlled well below the standard value.

    the ANS 1994 Winter Meeting.

    95/03099 Safety survives prlvatlsatlon Cunningham, P. Mine & Quarry, Jan.-Feb. 1995, 24, (l), 30-31. Much has been written about the likely effects on health and safety of the privatisation of the British Coal Corporations deep coal mining operations in the UK. The author from the HSE discusses the implications for health and safety in opencast coal mines.

    95/03100 Simultaneous reduction of SO, and NO, In an entralned-flow reactor Wang, W. et al., Fuel, Feb. 1995, 74, (2), 267-272. Simultaneous SO, and NO, reduction in flue gas by the dry furnace sorbent injection process was simulated with an entrained-flow reactor. Several ammonium salts as well as urea were tested. Urea was found to give the highest NO, removal efficiency. By using urea-limestone sorbent, >90% SC+ removal and >SO% NO, removal were obtained at Ca/S and N/NO, rattos both equal to 2. The DeNO, process is more temperature-sensitive than the DeSO

    95/03109 Sulfur capture capacity of limestones In combus- tlon gases: Effect of thermally Induced cracking Liu, Y. et al., Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chem. Sot., Div. Fuel Chem., 1994, 39, (l), 228-232. The authors examined the dependency of the sulphur capture capacity of two high CaCO, content limestones on particle size. The extent of sorbent utilization is dependent on the extent of sulphur penetration into the parti-

    T!i process, and 900C can be chosen as the overall optimum

    temperature. e N,O formed was ~10 ppmv at 2 s residence time. A reductive path from NO, or NO to N, is proposed to explain the experi- mental results.

    cles or sulphur penetration into the individual grains which comprise of single particle. The occurrence of cracking within particles had a strong impact on the sulphur capture behaviour, since it produced significant accessible surface area. The petrographic properties of sorbents play an important role in determining calcination and sulphation behaviour. The cracking pattern is related to gram size, grain-gram interlocking and parti- cle size.

    95103109 Sulphates, climate and coal Adams, D. M. and Smith, I. M. IEA Coal Research, Publications Dept., Gemini House, IO-18 Putney Hill, London SW15 6AA, IEAPERI16, f255.00, Jan. 1995, 30 pp.

    220 Fuel and Energy Abstracts May 1995


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