Session 40 Tµnis Hunt

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Safety, Security and Administrative Procedures as an Obstacle for the Sea Transport Flows in the Baltic Sea Region

Text of Session 40 Tµnis Hunt

  • 1. Safety, Security and Administrative Procedures as an Obstaclefor the Sea Transport Flows in the Baltic Sea Region Tnis Hunt,Raivo Portsmuth, Kaidi NmmelaTransportforum Linkping 10.01.2013

2. Penta project Conducted as a part of Penta project funded by EUCentral Baltic Interreg IVa programme and ports ofHelsinki, Naantali, Turku and Stockholm Project duration: January 2011 August 2013 Project partners: University of Turku, Centre for Maritime Studies TFK -Transport Research Institute Estonian Maritime Academy Safety, security and administrative procedures is themeof one of the work packages in the project More information 3. Work Pakage Safety, security and administrative procedures Deals with national and international legislations andanalyses coming requirements of security, safety andadministrative procedures. The aim was to determine the impacts of the comingrequirements on the port communities. Final research paper will be available in August 2013,including recommendations for decisionmakers andactors in the business. 4. Research methods Questionnaires to and inteviews with actors Previous studies on subject matter Analysis of legal acts and coming requirements 5. Scope of researchLegislative Framework- International,- European Union,- National,- Port 6. Legal acts as obstacles? There are number of organizations, who give out maritimerelated rules, conventions, codes, circular letters etc. IMO, WHO, ILO, EC, Maritime Administrations, etc. There are about 50 IMO conventions, 30 IMO codes, 2500IMO circular letters, 1700 IMO resolutions, thousands ofpages of Classifications rules, a number of EU conventions anddirectives etc that must be followed constantly. All these documents have been created for various reasons and they have different objectives. In addition, the existing documents are being changed and modified continuously. 7. Interpretation of Legal Acts Each country is free to find suitable interpretations andimplement them in their national legislation. This means thatcountries may rely on several factors when interpreting, suchas politics, cultural background, community interests,bureaucracy or economic interests. Therefore, interpretations may become very different in countries. Due to diversity in interpretations for example ship-owners sometimes have difficulties in applying all these rules on time, especially when regulations require major planning and investment. 8. Main barrier topics Sulphur Oxide emissions standards; Nitrogen Oxide emissions standards Co-operation in IT field Schengen regulation; Competence management in port community; Ballast water directive Carbon Dioxide emissions limits Maritime surveillance systems AIS Sanitary and veterinary regulations 9. Sulphur Oxide emissions standardsBackgroundImpactThe MARPOL Annex VI regulation 14 sets An increased fuel price due to sharply increased limits on the SOx content of marine fuel oils.demand for the low sulphur fuel.EU Sulphur directive (Directive 1999/32/EC Low availability of fuel with the required sulphur amended by Directive 2005/33/EC) sets alsocontent. standards for the sulphur content in marineTechnical problems in installing scrubbers on existing fuels.ships.Inside the SECA the limit of SOx content inPorts are required to receive scrubbers residues, marine fuel is 0.10% on and after which will increase port fees. 01.01.2015 Third parties must establish residues processingThe global limit of SOx emission is chemical plant factories. determined 0.50% on and after 01.01.2020 Low availability of alternative fuels (e.g. LNG) in ports. (date could be deferred to 01.01.2025).Operating ships in SECAs will becomeAn option of using any fitting material,disproportionally more expensive. appliance or apparatus to be fitted in a shipModal shift or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or Transport chain will change to shorter sea routes. compliance methods used as an alternativeThe competitiveness of the SECA area will decrease. in order to meet the regulation standards.The increased use of other potential transport corridors in order to avoid the SECA area. 10. Nitrogen Oxide emissions standardsBackgroundImpactThe MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI regulation Ship-owners are required to adopt new 13 sets limits NOx emission from diesel technologies. engines. The use of new technology adds additional costsThe control of NOx emissions is to ship-owners. implemented in new ships engines.Designation of the Baltic Sea as a NECA wouldThe limits are depending of the enginesincrease the freight rates of shipping. rated speed. The increased freight rates might lead to someThe NOx Technical Code 2008 specifies the modal shift in the BSR. requirements for testing, survey and Decreased quantities of goods and modal shift certification of marine diesel engines. from sea to land transport will have negativeThe basic regulations include a variety ofimpacts on the ports as well as the entire further restrictions and requirements.maritime sector 11. Co-operation in IT-fieldBackground ImpactNo specific regulation that would establish Lack of trust in different IT-systems. requirements for the ports IT-systems. Customers are obliged to provide severalDiversity of standards in electronic communication. different authorities with the same reports andThe ports are allowed to choose independently which tools and systems they use. data and enter the same information multipleThe EU has decided to move towards common times into different systems. standards, such as maritime single window system. Wasting of time and resources for entering dataA draft roadmap Integrated Maritime Surveillance:into different systems. a Common Information Sharing Environment for the European Union maritime domain. Decrease the reliability of the data due toPorts are using different IT-systems and tools from diversity of standards in electronic each other. communication.IT systems and tools are not compatible. Users have hard time to learn how to use IT-Some IT-systems used in ports have no option forsystems due to poor GUI. checking the data quality.Many failures in IT-systems. Weaker competitiveness of ports compared toIn case of IT-system failures, an alternative system is those EU ports that have common IT platforms. typically absent.Often IT-systems GUI are not user-friendly.No financing and supporting program for the ports community to create common EU IT-system. 12. Schengen regulationBackgroundImpactSchengen regulations concerning to short- This regulation has led to delays in border time visas of cruise passengers from third controls. countries are causing misunderstanding. The current situation has a negative impactBorder guards have difficulty knowingon the cruise business and clients. how to properly mark the sort-time visas. It will discourage more potential customersA full passport control has been madein the Baltic cruise business. obligatory (inward and outward clearance) Negative financial impact might affect all in every port during the cruise voyage ports and stakeholders involved, including from third countries.local participating cities and their economiesdue to a decline in amount of visitors. 13. Competence management in portcommunityBackgroundImpactInvestment in human resources and securing Diversity of standards in port-logistics so called social sustainability is essential for qualifications around the BSR. ports to satisfy the demand for qualified Ports have employees with different level of labour and stay competitive. competencies.Growing demand for labour flexibility in In some BSR countries qualification and training port-related logistics, growing intensity of cargo handling, more and more use of ICT inin the field of port and logistics are still in the port operations and the internationalphase of adjustment to the European regulations and standards (e.g. thestandards, with low demand for standardized EU/ILO/IMO) are requiring ports to think services and a primary need to integrate the more about employees competenceEQF into the national legislation. management in ports communities. Ports are not worried about the competenciesIn order to provide an opportunity toof their employees. standardize the skill levels of employees, the European Parliament and Council have Some workers have to be multi skilled and adopted the European Qualificationsmove between different assignments and they Framework (EQF). have different competencies.All BSR seaports are regulating their Some ports do not consider it is necessary to employers competence individually, with harmonize the requirements of their workers little transnational compatibility with the EQF. 14. Ballast water directiveBackground ImpactFrom environmental experts point of Ship-owners are required to use on-board view, ballast water represents a majorinstallation of BWTS or other BWM measures. threat to the marine environment and Ports may be required to invest new port ecosystem.reception facilities.IMO adopted the International The regulation adds additional costs to ship- Convention for the Control andowners (such as ballast water treatment Management of Ships Ballast Water andsystems, more powerful diesel generator, Sediments.more powerful ballast water pumps/electricThe BWM Convention enters into force, engine, re-design costs). from 2016 onwards for existing vessels Regional different BWM approaches would and from 2011/2012 onwards for newcomplicate shipping. builds.As required by IMO BWE should be undertaken at least 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and in water depths of at least 200 m. 15. Carbon Dioxide emissions standardsBackground ImpactReduction of the greenhouse gas CO2 is Ship-owners are required to find new ways to one of the key goals which the global meet the emissions standards. maritime industry has set itself. Ship-owners are required to invest newThe first CO2 regulations were adopted by technology on