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Socio-cultural Development - Vygotsky

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  • 1. Socio-Cultural DevelopmentVygotsky Clip art images

2. Objectives Theory/theorist background Identify socio-cultural influences on development Social and cultural factors that affect childrens development Describe Vygotskys theory of social constructivism Social sources of individual thinking Identify the role of language and private speech Define the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Apply this concept Define scaffolding Apply this concept Identify educational implications of Vygotskys perspective Compare and contrast the perspectives of Piaget and Vygotsky 3. Socio-cultural influences Two backgrounds: Adult-child Children growing up in a interactions Western middle-class society Play Children growing up in a Education village or tribal culture ResponsibilitiesClip art images 4. Socio-cultural influencesWestern middle-class society Village and/or tribal cultureChildren typically excluded from takingChildren spend their days in contactpart in adult work, which is generally with, or participating in, adult work.outside of home.In early childhood, parent interactionsIn early childhood, children start tofocus on preparing the child to succeedassume mature school.Adult-child conversations and play Parents have little need to rely onenhance language, literacy and other conversation or play to teach related knowledge.Schools given the role of equippingChildren receive little or no schooling.children with the skills they will need tobecome competent workers.(Gaskins 1999; Morelli, Rogoff & Angelillo 2003) 5. Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934 A Russian psychologist and educator Born 1896 (same year as Piaget) Jewish middle class family Privately tutored Graduated Moscow State University 1917 Taught literature and psychology for seven years Post-World War revolutionary RussiaGoogle images Over 100 books and articles Theory not known among English-speaking educators until 1960s whenworks were translated Few scholarly works published during his lifetime Shortly after his death Vygotskys work was banned in the Soviet Union for more than twenty years 6. Socio-cultural theoryEmphasises Sociocultural forces The situation of a childs development and learning Crucial roles played by parents, teachers, peers and thecommunity Interactions occurring between children and their environments Mediation Human and symbolic intermediaries between the learner and the material to be learned Psychological tools Symbolic systems internalised by learners to become their inner cognitive tools 7. Social constructivism Complex mental processes begin as social activities Dialogue promotes cognitive development Children incorporate the ways that adults and others talkabout and interpret the world into their own ways ofthinking Through their interactions with children adults transmittheir societys values and skills to the next generation... thus influencing the course of future developmentClip art images 8. Cultural apprentices Knowledge is constructed in a socialcontext Learners as active participants Children are apprentices of theirculture Fishing/hunting cultures pass onecological knowledge Trading cultures pass on skills inmathematics Smiths and tradesmen pass on the skillsof their workClip art images 9. Students, teachers and knowledge How is knowledge passed on in Australian, German andJapanese classrooms? How do they differ? In a Japanese classroom there are students and there isknowledge and the teacher serves as a mediator betweenthem.* In a German classroom there are also students andknowledge, but teachers perceive this knowledge as theirproperty to dispense to students as they think best.* In the Australian classroom we again have teachers andstudents and knowledge What is their relationship in this context? Delivery of knowledge - by expert teachers? Co-construction of knowledge? Student discovery of knowledge?*Stiegler & Hiebert 1999, cited in Kozulin et al.2003 Vygotskys educational theory in cultural contextClip art images 10. Socio-cultural influences on cognition and learning Human cognition and learning as social and cultural ratherthan individual phenomena Explored relationships between Language and thought Instruction and development Everyday and academic concept formation The nature of knowledge in the classroom Children defined by their age and IQ versus culturally and socially situated learners Teachers as: Role model? Source of knowledge? Mediator of knowledge?Clip art images 11. Cultural tools Allow people in a society to communicate, think, solveproblems, create knowledge These tools (type and quality) influence the pattern and rateof development Real tools Printing press Computer Internet Symbolic tools(psychological) Language Signs CodesClip art images 12. Language Social instrument Language development broadens participation Cognitive tool Dialogues transformed into higher cognitive processes Thought and language are interdependent self-talk children talk to themselves out loud inner speech private speech children talk to themselves mentally language transformed into inner verbal thought Clip art images 13. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Children can perform more challenging tasks when assisted Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth Actual developmental level Extent to which the child can perform tasks independently Level of potential development Extent to which the child can perform tasks with assistance The range of tasks a child cannot yet do on their own, but can dowith the help of others is known as the Zone of ProximalDevelopment (ZPD) To help a child move through the ZPD, assistance is provided byscaffolding 14. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) ...what we call the Zone of ProximalBeyond reach a distance between at present the actual developmental level determined by individual problem solving and the level of development ZPD as determined through problem solving under guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers (Vygotsky 1978, p.86).Childs current achievement Within the ZPD are those skills or tasks too difficult for a child to master on his or her own; but that can be done with guidance and encouragement from a knowledgeable personVygotsky, L 1978, Mind in society: The Development of Higher Mental Processes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. 15. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)Tasks the childTasks the childTasks the childis capable of cannot can completecompleting with complete evenindependently help and guidancewith help (scaffolding)Can do with help Cannot do yetCan do aloneWithin ZPDBeyond ZPD 16. Scaffolding Assistance provided by morecompetent peers or adults toenable the task to be donesuccessfully Scaffolded instruction allows thelearner to move through the ZPD Modelling; feedback; instruction;questioning; encouragement; taskstructuring; chunking; breaking theproblem down Scaffolding is gradually withdrawnClip art images 17. Putting it all together: Language + ZPD + Scaffolding ActualZone of proximal development Potentialdevelopment(ZPD)development StudentAdult then joint Selfresponsibility responsibilityresponsibilityWhat studentScaffoldingTransition from otherAssistance Internalisation, can do on Assistance from moreassistance to self- provided by automatisationhis/her own capable others:assistancethe self unassistedteacher, adults, peers Clues; reminders; examples; modelling;encouragement; breaking problem downSocial speech Adult uses languageAdult and student shareto model process language and activitySelf-talk Inner speech - Private speech Student uses for Silent dialogue Internalised andhimself/herself the studenttransformed to language that adultshas with self:inner verbaluse to regulateconscious thought:behaviour:mental activityself-regulationself-control 18. Teaching implications Students need many opportunities to learn with a teacher and withmore-skilled peers Work within the zone of proximal development Establish a level of difficulty Challenging, but not too difficult May mean differentiating learning experiences Evaluate independent performance Provide scaffolding Scaffolded instruction Assisted performance Teacher or more capable peer Cooperative learning Incorporate language and self-instruction in teaching Model language use when completing tasks Think out loud Regularly monitor and assess students independent performance 19. Summary of key principles and concepts Learners are: Thought and language become Active participants increasingly interdependent Self-regulated self-talk Social interaction is necessary children talk to themselves out loud Cooperative dialogues inner speech and private speechbetween children and more children talk to themselves mentallyknowledgeable members of Children can perform more challengingsociety tasks when assisted by more Vital roles of parents, competent individualsteachers, peers in cognitive Actual developmental leveldevelopment child can perform tasks Culture is transmitted to the independentlynext generation Potential development Values, beliefs, customs, and child can perform tasks withskills of a social groupassistance Children apprentices of their Zone of Proximal Developmentculture Scaffolding Complex mental processes Challenging tasks promote maximumbegin as social activities. cognitive growth 20. Criticisms Has the role of language in thinking been overemphasised? Verbal interactions are not the only means through which children learn. What about children who are deaf? What of cultures where schooling and literacy are notemphasised? What about biological contributions to childrens cognition? Can facilitators be too helpful in some cases? Such as when a parent becomes too overbearing and controlling. Do children become lazy and expect help when they might havedone something on their own? Vagueness around the concept of ZPD Is the