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SOPHOMORE WORLD HISTORY MR. TAYLOR. THE OLD ORDER- Inequalities in French society! King was at the top- King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette 3

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Text of SOPHOMORE WORLD HISTORY MR. TAYLOR. THE OLD ORDER- Inequalities in French society! King was at the...

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  • SOPHOMORE WORLD HISTORY MR. TAYLOR
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  • THE OLD ORDER- Inequalities in French society! King was at the top- King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette 3 social groups (ESTATES) were under him 1 st Estate- Catholic Clergy- 1% of the population Several privileges- FEW TAXES 10% of all land in France 2 nd Estate- Nobility- 2% of the population Paid few taxes- 20% of all land Key positions in govt. and military Great country manors First two estates hated the Enlightenment- WHY? 3 rd Estate- 97% of the population Bourgeoisie- Merchants, Factory Owners, Professionals Artisans- Skilled Workers Peasants- pg. 217
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  • Enlightenment ideas illustrated social inequalities and help to inspire the French Revolution. NEW VIEWS ABOUT POWER AND AUTHORITY American Revolution was also an inspiration for the French Revolution movement.- Equality, Liberty, Democracy A financial crises, severe economic problems affected much of the country 1. Severe Debt- wars, American Revolution, lavish spending- Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette 2. Attempts to raise taxes on the 2 nd Estate failed. 3. Poor weather conditions- POOR HARVESTS PEOPLE WERE HUNGRY AND ANGRY Weak Leadership- Page 219
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  • MEETING OF THE ESTATES- GENERAL An assembly made up of all three Estates- Asked to approve taxes on the Third Estate Estates General had not met for over 175 years- Met at Versailles The People wanted extreme reforms Voting process threatened reform How? 3 rd Estate wanted voting procedures changed- Pg 220 TENNIS COURT OATH!- Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes NATIONAL ASSEMBLY!- The Beginning of Rep. Govt.
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  • Louis XVI ordered troops to Paris- National Assembly felt threatened- People of Paris rose up to defend the National Assembly- pg. 221- July 14 th, STORMING OF THE BASTILLE GREAT FEAR- Fear that the King and Nobles would use force to put down the revolution- pg. 221
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  • The Assembly Reforms France,Setting the stage- 222 Eliminated Feudal dues Tax the First Estate Wrote the Declarations the Rights of Man LIBERTY, EQUALITY, AND FRATERNITY Freedom of speech press and religion A State Controlled Church: Gov. took over Church land Church officials were to be elected Millions of devout Catholics were alarmed
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  • King Louis again called troops to Paris to protect the monarchy from the National Assembly This angered the common man A mob of 7,000 people stormed the Palace of Versailles Seized the palace and moved Louis to Paris. National Assembly began to seize church land! All religious orders were disbanded Clergy turned into public employees LOUIS TRIES TO ESCAPE- Page 223
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  • The Declaration laid out the basic principles of the French Revolutionliberty, equality, fraternity [brotherhood]. Writers of the Declaration took their inspiration from the English Bill of Rights, the American Declaration of Independence, and the writings of Enlightenment philosophers
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  • 1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights 2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression 5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. 6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its formation. It must be the same for all 7. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law 9. As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty 11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man 12. A common contribution (tax) is essential. This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means.
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  • 1791- Legislative Assembly Established broad voting rights Restricted the Monarchy- Limited Constitutional Monarchy New Legislative body- The King was still the executive- Limited Powers Factions Split- Page 223 Emigres and Sans-Culottes 1792- Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria and Prussia The End of the Monarchy Extreme action came on August 10, 1792, when a mob marched on the Tuileries Palace and slaughtered the guards. Louis, Marie-Antoinette, and the childrennow demoted to commoners were thrown in prison. Faced with mob violence and foreign invasion, the Legislative Assembly felt powerless. It voted itself out of existence and called for the election of a new legislature, the National Convention. The violence in August helped put the radical faction, or those who favored extreme change, in control. Among the National Conventions first acts were abolishing the monarchy and declaring France a republic.
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  • European Monarchs in Europe watched the changes taking place in France with fear and alarm! Why? Austria and Prussia supported the Monarchy 1792- Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria and Prussia- The war was going badly August 10,1792- King and his family were imprisoned September Massacre- Page 224 The Legislative Assembly abolished the monarchy and established the Republic All Adult males citizens were given the right to vote
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  • JACOBINS- Radicals that controlled the National Convention Tried Louis for treason Jan. 21, 1793- THE KING WAS EXECUTED The War continues- Page 226 ENEMIES OF THE JACOBINS- Many people were horrified by the Kings execution Clergy and supporters of the Church- why? Rival leaders
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  • Maximilien Robespierre Republic of Virtue-Wipe out the past Changed the calendar- No Sundays Closed many churches Committee of Public Safety REIGN OF TERROR- PAGE 226-227 Georges-Jacques Danton Jean-Paul Marat Maximilien Robespierre
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  • As a result, some of the revolutionary leaders feared that they would lose control. They decided to take drastic actions to avoid a possible counterrevolution, a revolution against a government that was established by a revolution. The Radicals began a series of accusations, trials, and executions that became known as the Reign of Terror, creating a wave of fear throughout the country. 1794- National Convention turned on Robespierre- He was arrested, tried and executed Moderates took over and formed the Directory Napoleon appointed head of the military- Page 227
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  • National Assembly created the Committee of Public Safety Manage the countries military defense against foreign forces Created a draft for all men between the ages of 18- 45 Established a new court called the Tribunal- Its purpose was to root out and eliminate people who threatened the Revolution!!
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  • National Assembly, created June 17, 1789 Ended feudalism and privileges of the First and Second Estates Approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Seized church lands and made clergy paid employees Wrote constitution that reduced the kings power Legislative Assembly, first met September 1791 Inexperienced representatives, often deadlocked on domestic issues Declared war on Austria in April 1792 National Convention, first met September 1792 Ended monarchy, proclaimed France a republic Tried and executed Louis XVI for treason Instituted draft to increase size of army In power during Reign of Terror Began codifying laws and creating public education system Abolished slavery in French colonies Wrote a new constitution, and created the Directory Directory, first met in 1795 Run by an executive branch of five directors Weak, corrupt, and inefficient Ended in 1799 when Napoleon seized power
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  • Napoleon Seizes Power Oct. 1795- Protects the National Convention from a Royalist Mob 1796- Directory- Lead an army against Austria- Victories in Italy 1790s- Napoleon controlled all French forces- kept France secure in very difficult times 1798- Napoleon in Egypt 1799 Coup d'tat- Directory had grown weak and ineffective pg 229
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  • 1799-France was still at war 1800 Plebiscite- Made Napoleon Dictator 1802Defeated a combined force of Britain, Austria and Prussia 1804- Crowned Emperor Kept many of the revolutions main ideas
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  • Reform of Church State Relations Concordat- most Fr. Citizens were Roman Catholic. However, they were not required to be Roman Catholic Religious Toleration Economic Reforms Established a national Bank Efficient Tax System Strong Regulation of the Economy Legal and Educational Reform Napoleonic Code Laws became uniform across the nation Eliminated many injustices Freedoms were eliminated Public education for men and boys- Lycees READ PAGE 230
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  • Loss of American territory- Page 231- Napoleon turned his attention to Europe Annexed Austria and Parts of Italy Puppet Government in Switzerland England established a coalition against France- financed much of the opposition Battle of Austerlitz- 1805 Only real enemy left was Britain France- had plans to invade Britain -1805 Battle of Trafalgar- British controlled the seas France did much better on land
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  • The Con

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