Stabilization of Local Soil with Bagasse Ash - SSRG Cane Bagasse Ash ... resultant ash is bagasse ash. II. LITERATURE REVIEW ... bagasse ash, rice husk ash and groundnut shell ash

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  • SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) EFES April 2015

    ISSN: 2348 8352 Page 37

    Stabilization of Local Soil with Bagasse Ash #1

    Ashish Murari, Istuti Singh*2

    , Naman Agarwal*3

    Ajit Kumar#4

    #1,2,3M-Tech student, Department of Civil Engineering, G.B.P.U.A&T Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India 4 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, G.B.P.U.A&T Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India

    Abstract A large number of infrastructure projects are being

    installed in almost every part of our country .The wastes of

    industries and agriculture adversely affect the environment as high

    land area will be required for their disposal and when they

    disintegrate, results in the production of harmful gases causing,

    soil contamination, land fill space and many other hazardous

    effects. In India, the rate of generation of solid waste is found to be

    increasing at a very rapid rate in past few years. Soil stabilization is

    a process that improves the engineering properties of soil such as

    strength, volume stability and durability. Expansive soils are those

    whose volume changes significantly when it comes in contact with

    water and are therefore, problematic to structures. Therefore, there

    arises a need to stabilize the soil and to solve the problem of the

    waste disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (S.C.B.A.), a waste

    material from the sugar industry is used as a stabilizer in modifying

    the properties of the soil. These materials can be utilized in various

    civil engineering works. A study is carried out to check the

    improvement in the properties of the soil with bagasse ash in

    varying percentages (2, 5, 7& 10%). The test results such as liquid

    limit, plastic limit, and standard proctor test were obtained on soil

    at different percentages of Bagasse Ash. The results show that with

    the increase in the percentage of bagasse ash the liquid limit and

    plastic limit gets reduced.

    Keywords Local available soil, Waste Material, S.C.B.A,



    Waste material is a challenge for the cities

    authorities in almost all developing countries

    mainly due to the increasing generation of waste.

    The rapid growth of industrialization and

    urbanization has resulted in the generation of many

    wastes all over the world. Though growth of

    industries is the necessity of the society, but its

    negative impacts on the environment and social life

    cannot be ignored. Today world faces a serious

    problem in disposing large quantity of agricultural


    It is a well known fact that expansive soils behaves

    like very soft material on wetting and pose a variety

    of problems to the structures, pavements etc. made

    on them. Expansive soil has a high potential for

    swelling and shrinking due to change of moisture

    content .These soil can be found on almost all the

    continents of the world. The quality of soil has a

    very large impact on type of structure and its design.

    To overcome this problem, stabilization of weak

    expansive soil is important. Soil stabilization is the

    treatment done on the soils to improve their

    properties so that they become suitable for

    construction over them. It is important to mention

    here that recent trends on soil stabilization have

    evolved innovative techniques of utilizing locally

    available environmental and industrial waste

    material for the modification and stabilization of

    deficient soil. In the process of soil stabilization and

    modification emphasis is given for maximum

    utilization of local material so that cost of

    construction may be minimized to the minimum

    extent. Previous researchers have shown that Sugar

    Cane Bagasse Ash (S.C.B.A.), a waste material

    from the sugar industry can be used as a stabilizer

    in modifying the properties of the soil. These

    materials can be utilized in various civil

    engineering works. Bagasse ash is a residue

    obtained from the burning of bagasse in sugar

    producing factories. Bagasse is the cellular fibrous

    waste product after the extraction of the sugar juice

    from cane mills. It is currently used as a bio fuel

    and in the manufacture of pulp and paper products

    and building materials. For each 10 tons of

    sugarcane crushed, a sugar factory produces nearly

    3 tons of wet bagasse which is a by-product of the

    sugar cane industry. When this bagasse is burnt the

    resultant ash is bagasse ash.


    Gandhi (2012) successfully worked on improving

    the existing poor and expansive sub grade soil

    using Bagasse ash. Bagasse ash effectively dries

    wet soils and provides an initial rapid strength

    gain, which is useful during construction in wet,

    unstable ground conditions. The swell potential of

    expansive soils decreases by replacing some of

    the volume previously held by order to evaluate


  • SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) EFES April 2015

    ISSN: 2348 8352 Page 38

    the possibility of their use in the industry. He

    conducted tests like Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit,

    Plasticity Index, Shrinkage Limit, Free Swell

    Index and Swelling Pressure with the increasing

    percentage of Bagasse ash at 0 %, 3%, 5%, 7%

    and 10% respectively .He found out that as the

    percentage of bagasse ash increases in the soil

    sample, all the properties decrease.

    Kiran R. G., Kiran L (2013) carried out for

    different percentages (4%, 8% and 12%) of

    bagasse ash and additive mix proportions. The

    strength parameters like CBR, UCS were

    determined. It was observed that blend results of

    bagasse ash with different percentage of cement

    for black cotton soil gave change in density, CBR

    and UCS values. The density values got

    increased from 15.16 KN/m3 to 16.5 KN/m

    3 for

    addition of 8% bagasse ash with 8% cement,

    Then CBR values got increased from 2.12 to 5.43

    for addition of 4% bagasse ash with 8% cement

    and UCS values got increased to 174.91 KN/m2

    from 84.92 KN/m2 for addition of 8% bagasse ash

    with 8% cement.

    M. Chittaranjan, M. Vijay, D. Keerthi (2011)

    studied the Agricultural wastes as soil stabilizers.

    In this study Agricultural wastes such as sugar cane

    bagasse ash, rice husk ash and groundnut shell ash

    are used to stabilize the weak sub grade soil. The

    weak sub grade soil is treated with the above three

    wastes separately at 0%, 3%, 6%, 9%,12%and 15%

    and CBR test is carried out for each per cent .The

    results of these tests showed improvement in CBR

    value with the increase in percentage of waste.

    Kharade et al (2014) worked on bagasse ash can

    be used as stabilizing material for expansive soils.

    Various experiments were conducted on black

    cotton soil with partial replacement by Bagasse Ash

    at 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% respectively. It was seen

    that due to addition of bagasse ash, CBR and

    Compressive strength increases almost by 40%, but

    density showed only significant change. The blend

    suggested 6% bagasse ash, without any addition of

    cementing or chemical material would be an

    economic approach. Further more if any cementing

    material is added in suggested blend, then there will

    be definitely more improvement in properties of

    expansive soils.


    A. Soil The soil for this study was procured from Sitarganj,

    U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India. The material was

    extracted from 2 m below the ground surface. Index

    properties of the soil were determined as per IS

    codes and are presented in Table -1. The soil is

    classified as CL.


    B. Bagasse Ash

    Bagasse ash used in this study is taken from The

    Kisan Sahkari Chini Mills Ltd. Sitarganj, district

    Udham Singh Nagar, (U.S. Nagar), Uttarakhand.

    The bagasse ash was collected from the boiler area.

    Fig. 1


    The proportions of Bagasse ash used along with the

    soil in the study are 2% 5%, 7% and 10%

    respectively. In order to determine maximum dry

    density (MDD) and optimum moisture content

    (OMC) of soil and soil-bagasse mix, standard

    proctor tests were conducted as per IS: 2720 (Part

    VII)-1980. The liquid limit and plastic limit were

    done according to IS: 2720 :( Part V) 1985.


    A series of laboratory tests (liquid limit, plastic

    limit, specific gravity and optimum moisture

    Parameter Value

    Specific gravity (G) 2.67

    Bulk Density (), g/cm3 2.07

    Plasticity Index 13

    Maximum dry density (d max), g/cm3

    (Standard Proctor Test) 1.793

    Optimum moisture content (OMC), % 15.30

    Natural Moisture Content 11.5

    Grain size distribution

    Sand size fraction (%)

    Silt size fraction (%)

    Clay size fraction (%)




    Soil type as per IS: 1498-1970 CL


  • SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) EFES April 2015

    ISSN: 2348 8352 Page 39

    content) have been performed with soil and by

    adding different percentages of bagasse ash

    TABLE 2



    Sample L.L


    P.L. P.I OMC MDD

    1 Soil + 0% B.A. 35 22 13 15.30 1.793

    2 Soil + 2% B.A. 33 22 11 16 1.769

    3 Soil + 5% B.A. 30 20 10 16.70 1.722

    4 Soil + 7% B.A. 28 19 9 17 1.701

    5 Soil + 10%


    26 17 9 18 1.692


    From the results it is clear that a change in the

    properties of the soil takes place. When bagasse ash

    is mixed with the soil, the plastic limit and the

    liquid limit decreases. This change of Atterbergs

    limit is due to the cation - exchange reaction and

    flocculation aggregation for more amount of

    bagasse ash, which reduces plasticity index of soil.

    A reduction in plasticity index causes a significant

    decrease in swell potential and removal of some

    water that can be absorbed by clay minerals.

    The reduction in dry density is a result of

    flocculation and agglomeration of fine grained soil

    particles which occupy larger space leading to a

    corresponding drop in maximum dry density. The

    optimum moisture content of soil increases with

    increase in Bagasse Ash because these admix was

    finer than the soil.


    I must offer my profound gratitude to my thesis

    advisor Dr. Ajit Kumar, Professor, Civil

    Engineering Department and also to staff members

    of Civil Engineering Laboratories for their

    assistance and cooperation during the course of

    experimentation. I would like to thank everyone for

    encouraging and helping to shape my interests and

    ideas. REFERENCES

    [1] A.V. Narasimha Rao and M Chittaranjan Applications of agricultural and domestic wastes in Geotechnical Applications Journal of Environmental Research and Development, January-

    March, vol.5, No. 3.,(2011).

    [2] Kiran R.G. and Kiran L. Analysis of strength characteristics of Black cotton soil using Bagasse ash and additives as stabilizer,

    IJERT, issue 7(2013).

    [3] Moses G. and Osinubi K.J. Influence of compactive efforts on cement bagasse ash treatment of expansive black cotton soil

    World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, pp


    [4] K.S Gandhi., Expansive soil stabilization using Bagasse Ash IJERT, July, Issue 5.(2012)

    [5] Kharade Amit S., Suryavanshi Vishal V., Gujar Bhikaji S.; Deshmukh Rohankit R.: Waste product bagasse ash from sugar

    industry can be used as stabilizing material for expansive soils

    IJRET, ISSN: 2321-7308, March vol.3, issue 3.(2014)

    [6] Monica Malhotra and Sanjeev Naval Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Low Cost Materials, International Journal of

    Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), ISSN: 2277-3754, Vol. 2, issue 11.(2013)

    [7] Kanchan Lata Singh and S.M. Ali Jawaid Geotechnical Properties of Soil Stabilized with Bagasse Ash, IJBSTR, Vol.1, issue 9(2013).

    [8] M. Chittaranjan, M. Vijay and D. Keerthi Agricultural wastes as soil stabilizers International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 04, issue 06 SPL, pp. 50-51(2011)

    [9] IS-2720 Part-5 Determination of Liquid and Plastic Limits. A publication of Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhawan, New Delhi, India (1985).

    [10] IS-2720 Part-7 (1980) Determination of Water Content-Dry

    Density Relation Using Light Compaction. A publication of Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhawan, New Delhi, India.(1980)



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