Stefaniak Rochester

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Stefaniak Rochester


<ul><li><p> Poetic Virtuosity: </p><p>Robert Schumann as a Critic and Composer </p><p>of Virtuoso Instrumental Music </p><p>(Volume One) </p><p>by </p><p>Alexander Stefaniak </p><p>Submitted in Partial Fulfillment </p><p>of the </p><p>Requirements for the Degree </p><p>Doctor of Philosophy </p><p>Supervised by </p><p>Professor Ralph P. Locke </p><p>Department of Musicology Eastman School of Music </p><p>University of Rochester Rochester, New York </p><p> 2012 </p></li><li><p>ii </p><p>Curriculum Vitae </p><p>Alexander Stefaniak was born in Parma, Ohio on August 13, 1983. He attended Baldwin-</p><p>Wallace College from 2002 to 2006 and graduated summa cum laude with Bachelor of </p><p>Music degrees in Music History and Literature and Piano Performance. He came to the </p><p>University of Rochester in August 2007 and began studies in musicology at the Eastman </p><p>School of Music with the support of a Sproull Fellowship. Work as a teaching assistant </p><p>and graduate instructor at Eastman and at the College of Arts and Sciences led in 2010 to </p><p>an Edward Peck Curtis Award for Excellence in Teaching by a Graduate Student. </p><p>Additional fellowships from Eastman include the Ann Clark Fehn Award (2007) and two </p><p>Graue Fellowships (2008 and 2009). Prof. Ralph P. Locke supervised his dissertation </p><p>work, and a Glenn Watkins Traveling Fellowship supported research in Germany during </p><p>Fall 2011. In August 2012, Alexander will begin an appointment as Assistant Professor </p><p>of Musicology at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. </p><p>Publications to date: </p><p>Review of Lettres de Franz Liszt la Princesse Marie de Hohenlohe-Schillingsfrst ne de Sayn-Wittgenstein. Edited by Pauline Pocknell, Malou Haine, and Nicolas Dufetel. Journal of the American Liszt Society (forthcoming). </p></li><li><p>iii </p><p>Acknowledgements </p><p>Perhaps the most delightful aspect of writing a dissertation has been the opportunity to </p><p>meet and work with many generous people who are passionate about the scholarly study </p><p>of music. I owe especial thanks to my readers: Prof. Ralph P. Locke (who served as my </p><p>primary advisor), Prof. Holly Watkins, and Prof. William Marvin. All three gave freely of </p><p>their own considerable and varied expertise, shared their infectious curiosity and </p><p>fascination with nineteenth-century music, and constantly challenged me to think more </p><p>deeply about my subject and craft. Other faculty at the Eastman School of Music and the </p><p>University of Rochester who have contributed to my dissertation work include Prof. </p><p>Melina Esse (who led our dissertation writers group), Prof. Reinhild Steingrver (who </p><p>helped with several of the trickier German translations), Prof. Celia Applegate (who </p><p>offered her insights on German musical culture at various stages of this project), and </p><p>Prof. Seth Monahan (who provided some life-saving technological pointers). </p><p> Two fellowships from the University of Rochestera Sproull Fellowship and a </p><p>Glenn Watkins Traveling Fellowshipallowed me to complete this dissertation on time </p><p>and to pursue research in Germany during Fall 2011. In Germany, I benefitted greatly </p><p>from the advice and hospitality of several scholars, librarians, and archivists, notably Dr. </p><p>Matthias Wendt and his staff at the Robert-Schumann-Forschungsstelle in Dsseldorf, </p><p>Dr. Thomas Synofzik and Dr. Hrosvith Dahmen of the Robert Schumann Haus in </p><p>Zwickau, and the staff of the Musiklesesaal at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich. </p><p>Prof. Rufus Hallmark provided some indispensable advice prior to my research trip, and </p><p>Dr. Katelijne Schiltz and Dr. Wolfgang Rathert were congenial, helpful contacts and </p><p>guides during my stay in Munich. </p></li><li><p>iv </p><p>In the United States, I enjoyed the assistance of Prof. Ruskin King Cooper, </p><p>American representative of the Schuncke Archive (who kindly sent me copies of several </p><p>very-hard-to-find scores), Prof. Claudia Macdonald (who shared the unpublished English </p><p>version of one of John Daverios articles), and David Peter Coppen of Sibley Music </p><p>Library Special Collections. In January 2012, Prof. Robert Mayerovitch of Baldwin-</p><p>Wallace College collaborated with me on a lecture-recital and gave back-to-back </p><p>performances of Schumanns tudes symphoniques and unpublished Fantaisies et finale, </p><p>an experience that led to me to refine some of the points I make about these works. </p><p>Finally, some of my discussions depend on material received from the Bibliothque du </p><p>Muse Royale de Mariemont in Belgium, the British Library, the Newberry Library, and </p><p>the University of California, Berkeley. </p><p> Last but not least, a cohort of friends and family members provided indispensable </p><p>moral support during my work on this dissertation. My fellow Eastman graduate students </p><p>Andrew Aziz, Regina Compton, Naomi Gregory, Katherine Hutchings, Samantha Inman, </p><p>Amy Kintner, and Kira Thurman listened to conference-paper rehearsals, exchanged </p><p>drafts, and formed a supportive community. My parents, Martha and Carl, and my </p><p>brother, Andy, have long nurtured my interest in music scholarship and were ever ready </p><p>to learn more about Robert Schumann and the process of writing a dissertation. And, </p><p>finally, Eliana Haig was there from the beginning of this project to the end: she helped in </p><p>ways big and small, supplying a musicians ear, good humor, and unwavering </p><p>encouragement. </p></li><li><p>v </p><p>Abstract </p><p>In this dissertation, I explore Robert Schumanns activities as a critic and composer of </p><p>virtuoso instrumental music. I argue that the view of Schumann as the consummate anti-</p><p>virtuoso polemicistcurrent in Romantic critical discourse as well as present-day </p><p>scholarly literatureis an oversimplified one. Instead, Schumann played a significant </p><p>role in the nineteenth-century German interaction between virtuosity, Romantic </p><p>aesthetics, and the ideology of serious music. German Romantic composers and critics </p><p>regarded virtuosity, on one hand, more as a source of crowd-pleasing entertainment than </p><p>as high art but, on the other, as a source of astonishment, originality, and audience appeal. </p><p>Schumann himself worked to promote (as critic) and realize (as composer) a self-</p><p>consciously serious, transcendent approach to virtuosity. Chapter 1 argues that Schumann </p><p>directed his critique of virtuosity at a specific repertory that recent scholars have termed </p><p>postclassical. This styleexemplified by the works of Henri Herz and Carl Czerny</p><p>prized accessibility and elegance, and Schumanns writings on postclassical showpieces </p><p>comment on their style and conventions as well as on the cultural significance of this </p><p>repertory. Chapters 2 and 3 explore ways in which Schumann sought to poeticize and </p><p>elevate virtuosity by combining postclassical conventions with Romantic musical </p><p>metaphors for inwardness and transcendence. The second discusses how Schumanns </p><p>concept of the poetic informed his approach to virtuosity. The third argues that </p><p>Schumann viewed virtuosity as a potential source of sublime experience and, moreover, </p><p>that contemporary critics received several of his own showpieces as sublime. Chapter 4 </p><p>considers writings in which Schumann argues for a symbiotic relationship between </p><p>virtuosos and musical institutions he regarded as serious. This ideal, I argue, shaped the </p></li><li><p>vi </p><p>style and structure of Schumanns own concertos, which stage virtuosic display as part of </p><p>the symphony-centered concert and incorporate the virtuoso into the idealized community </p><p>of the professional symphony orchestra. Schumann thus participated influentially in a </p><p>discourse that did not establish a binaristic opposition between virtuosity and serious </p><p>music or attempt to suppress public interest in virtuosity but rather created various ways </p><p>of customizing contemporary virtuosity according to the ideology of serious music and </p><p>the aesthetic imperatives of German Romanticism. </p></li><li><p>vii </p><p>Table of Contents </p><p>Volume 1 </p><p>Curriculum Vitae ii </p><p>Acknowledgements iii </p><p>Abstract v </p><p>Note to the Reader 1 </p><p>Introduction 2 </p><p>Chapter 1 Schumanns Critique of Postclassical Virtuosity 32 </p><p> Virtuosity as Entertainment: The Postclassical Style 36 </p><p> Schumann and the Neue Zeitschrifts Critique of Postclassical Virtuosity 57 Virtuoso Entertainment and Aristocratic Frivolity 66 Epilogue: Henriette Voigt and the Poetic Salon 75 Chapter 2 Virtuosity and the Schumannian Poetic 80 Ein Opus II 86 A Poetic Virtuoso Makes his Debut: </p><p>Schumanns Abegg Variations, Opus 1 102 A Pianistic Sampler and a Poetic Network: Schumanns Unpublished Fantaisies et finale 112 From Chiaroscuro Depth to Poetic Distance: Poetic Texture and Figuration, According to Schumann 129 Chapter 3 Schumanns 1830s Showpieces and the Rhetoric of the Sublime 145 Sublime Virtuosity in Schumanns Critical Writings 155 Poeticizing and Appropriating Paganini: The Roots of Schumanns Sublime Virtuosity 162 A Concerto with an Ocean for a Finale 171 </p></li><li><p>viii </p><p> A Toccata Emblazoned with the Name of Beethoven 183 From the Poetic to the (Beethovenian?) Sublime: The 1837 tudes symphoniques 196 Chapter 4 The Virtuoso on Mount Parnassus: Schumann and the 206 </p><p>Concertante Principle </p><p>The Virtuoso Concerto and Schumanns Critique of Postclassicism 217 Vehicles for Serious Virtuosity 230 Twin Strategies: Schumanns Piano Concerto, Op. 54 234 Trajectories of Sublimation and Convergence: The Later, Single-Movement Concertos 248 </p><p> Epilogue 277 Bibliography 284 </p><p>Volume 2 Appendices: Figures and Examples </p><p>Chapter 1 Figures and Examples 298 </p><p>Chapter 2 Figures and Examples 323 </p><p>Chapter 3 Figures and Examples 358 </p><p>Chapter 4 Figures and Examples 396 </p></li><li><p>ix </p><p>List of Figures and Examples </p><p>Volume 2 </p><p>Chapter 1 Figures and Examples Example 1.1: Carl Czerny, The School of Practical Composition. Sample variations. 299 Example 1.2: Henri Herz, Grandes variations sur le Choeur des Grecs du Sige du Corinthe, Op. 36. Theme and Variation 1. 301 Example 1.3: Herz, Grandes variations. Finale. 303 Figure 1.1: Herz, Grandes variations. Formal outline. 305 Example 1.4: Herz, Grandes Variations. Variations 3 and 4. 306 Example 1.5: Theodore Dhler, Fantaisie et Variations sur la Cavatine Favorite de Anna Bolena, Op. 17. Variation 1. 307 Example 1.6: Dhler, Fantaisie et Variations sur Anna Bolena. Two clichs identified by Schumann. 308 Example 1.7: Julius Benedict, Introduction et Variations sur un thme favori de lOpra La Straniera, Op. 16. Variation 5. 309 Example 1.8: Benedict, Variations sur La Straniera. Introduction. 310 Example 1.9: Sigismund Thalberg, Grande Fantaisie et Variations Brillantes sur un motif favori de lOpra I Capuletti e Montecchi, Op. 10. Variations 1 and 2. 312 Example 1.10: Thalberg, I Capuletti Variations. Finale. 313 Example 1.11: Frrric Kalkbrenner, Fantaisie et Variations sur un Thme de La Straniera, Op. 123. Theme, Variation 1. 316 Example 1.12: Thalberg, Grand Fantaisie sur des motifs de lOpra Norma, Op. 12. Introduction. 318 Example 1.13: Thalberg, Norma Fantaisie. Variation 2. 320 Example 1.14: Thalberg, Norma Fantaisie. Finale. 321 </p></li><li><p>x </p><p>Chapter 2 Figures and Examples Example 2.1: Frdric Chopin, L ci darem la mano Variations, Op. 2. Close of introduction. 324 Example 2.2: Chopin, L ci darem la mano Variations. Variation 1. 325 Example 2.3: Chopin, L ci darem la mano Variations. Variation 5. 326 Example 2.4: Chopin, L ci darem la mano Variations. Continuation of second episode in rondo finale. 328 Figure 2.1: Schumann, Abegg Variations, Op. 1. Sequence of movements and theme. 330 Example 2.5: Schumann, Abegg Variations. Variation 1. 331 Example 2.6: Schumann, Abegg Variations. Variations 2 and 3. 332 Figure 2.2: Rondo form of Abegg finale. 334 Example 2.7: Schumann, Abegg Variations. Finale, transition to second episode (C). 335 Figure 2.3: Schumann, Fantaisies et finale. Sequence of variations. 337 Example 2.8: Schumann, Fantaisies et finale. Theme. 339 Example 2.9: Schumann, Fantaisies et finale. Fantasies 2 and 3. 340 Example 2.10: Schumann, Fantaisies et finale. Fantasy 7 and Trio. 341 Example 2.11: Schumann, Fantaisies et finale. Fantasy 4. 342 Example 2.12: Schumann, Fantaisies et finale. Fantasy 10. 344 Example 2.13: Heinrich Marschner, Wer ist der Ritter hochgeehrt, from Der Templer und die Jdin. 345 Example 2.14: Schumann, Fantaisies et finale. Finale refrain. 347 Figure 2.4: Marschner, Wer ist der Ritter. Text (by Wilhelm August Wohlbrck) and translation. 348 Example 2.15: Ferdinand Hiller, Etude, Op. 15, no. 2. 349 </p></li><li><p>xi </p><p>Example 2.16: Cramer, Studio per il pianoforte, No. 36 and Hiller, Etude Op. 15, no. 22. 350 Example 2.17: Hiller, Etude Op. 15, no. 4. 351 Example 2.18: Hiller and Chopin etudes. 352 Example 2.19: Chopin, Etude Op. 25, no. 1. Excerpts. 353 Example 2.20: Schumann, Papillons, Op. 2 and Abegg Variations, Op. 1. Distant sound effects. 354 Example 2.21: Schumann, Exercise. Coda. 355 Example 2.22: Schumann, Toccata, Op. 7. Coda. 356 Chapter 3 Figures and Examples Example 3.1: Schumann, Kreisleriana, Op. 16. Movements 1 and 7. 359 Example 3.2: Chopin, Sonata No. 2 in B-flat minor, Op. 35. Finale. 359 Example 3.3: Paganini, Caprice No. 16. Schumann, Etude, Op. 3, no. 6. 360 Example 3.4: Paganini, Caprice No. 16. Schumann, Etude Op. 3, no. 6. Coda. 362 Example 3.5: Paganini, Caprice No. 12. Schumann, Etude Op. 10, no. 1. 363 Example 3.6: Paganini, Caprice No. 10. Schumann, Etude Op. 10, no. 3. 365 Example 3.7: Paganini, Caprice No. 4. 366 Example 3.8: Schumann, Etude Op. 10, no. 4. 368 Example 3.9: Schumann, Concert sans orchestre, Op. 14, movement 4. Opening. 370 Figure 3.1: Schumann, Concert sans orchestre, movement 4. 371 Example 3.10: Schumann, Concert sans orchestre, movement 4. Theme B. 372 Example 3.11: Schumann, Concert sans orchestre, movement 4. Theme C. 373...</p></li></ul>