Survival Activity

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<p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 1</p> <p>Part 1 Games, Role Plays, and ExercisesSometimes the best way to gain insight into your real-life situation is to step away from it. Do something new. Become someone new, if only for a brief while. Play a game, adopt a different persona, confront a strange challenge. The activities in Part 1 are designed with that thought in mind. These are experiential exercises that use various devicesrole plays, games, brainteasers, problem-solving challengesthat push participants out of their actual jobs and relationships in order to open minds so that new insights can rush in. The discussions that accompany and follow these unreal activities lead, of course, straight back to the real world. Questions to help the facilitator guide those discussions are included with each activity to help ensure that lasting learning takes place. The activities in Part 1 cover a broad range of training needs and are organized under four topic headings: Orientation to Team Concepts, Communication and Group-Process Issues, Solving Problems and Making Decisions, and Stress and Conict. Brief explanations of these headings precede each section.</p> <p>1</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 2</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 3</p> <p>Games, Role Plays, and Exercises</p> <p>Orientation to Team ConceptsThe four activities in this short section actually are intended as pairs of alternatives for imparting experiential messages about each of two fundamental lessons that everyone on an effective work team must learn. Lost at Sea and Wilderness Survival are both classics that use variations on the same formula to hammer home the same point: A group of people who pool their knowledge and think together generally will arrive at better decisions than a person thinking alone. Use either or both of these activities but not with the same group. Prisoners Dilemma is more famous than Testing: Intergroup Competion, and it certainly has a catchier title. But both are excellent devices for leading a group to a memorable realization that sometimes the way to compete is by collaborating. Take your pick.s</p> <p>Lost at Sea: A Consensus-Seeking TaskEngaging, time-tested demonstration that several heads are (usually) better than one when it comes to making good decisions. Wilderness Survival: A Consensus-Seeking TaskRather be lost in the woods than Lost at Sea? Same principle, same message, equally engaging decisions to make. Prisoners Dilemma: An Intergroup CompetitionBut it turns out that the way to win is to collaborate instead of compete, so that your opponent can win too. Testing: Intergroup CompetitionPrisoners Dilemma meets Jeopardy. Leads to a similar Aha! about the need to play for win/win outcomes.</p> <p>s</p> <p>s</p> <p>s</p> <p>3</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 4</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 5</p> <p>1Lost at Sea: A Consensus-Seeking TaskPaul M. Nemiroff and William A. PasmoreGoalss</p> <p>To teach the effectiveness of consensus-seeking behavior in task groups through comparative experiences with both individual decision making and group decision making. To explore the concept of synergy in reference to the outcomes of group decision making.</p> <p>s</p> <p>Group SizeFive to twelve participants. Several subgroups may be directed simultaneously. (Synergistic outcomes are more likely to be achieved by smaller subgroups, e.g., ve to seven participants.)</p> <p>Time RequiredApproximately one hour.</p> <p>Materialss s</p> <p>Two copies of the Lost at Sea Individual Work Sheet for each participant. A copy of the Lost at Sea Group Work Sheet for each subgroup.</p> <p>Pfeiffers Classic Activities for Building Better Teams/ 2003 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.</p> <p>5</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 6</p> <p>s s s</p> <p>A copy of the Lost at Sea Answer and Rationale Sheet for each participant. Pencils. Newsprint and felt-tipped markers.</p> <p>Physical SettingLapboards or desk chairs are best for privacy in individual work. Tables may be used, but the dynamics involved are likely to be different.</p> <p>Process1. The facilitator distributes two copies of the Lost at Sea Individual Work Sheet to each participant and asks each person to complete the forms in duplicate. He or she explains that participants are to work independently during this phase. (Fifteen minutes.) 2. The facilitator collects one copy from each participant. The other copy is for the use of the subgroup. 3. The facilitator forms subgroups and directs them to particular work areas in the room. Each subgroup is given a copy of the Lost at Sea Group Work Sheet. The facilitator then reads the instructions to the subgroups, emphasizing that each member of a subgroup should partially agree with the subgroup choices to establish consensus, but that they are not to use such techniques as averaging, majority-rule voting, or trading. He or she stresses that it is desirable that effort be made to achieve success in this task. 4. While the subgroups are engaged in their task, the facilitator scores the individual ranking sheets. The score is the sum of the differences between the correct rank for each item and its rank on the Individual Work Sheet (all differences should be made positive and added). Higher scores have greater negative implications. The facilitator then totals all individual scores for each subgroup and divides by the number of members to obtain the average individual score for each subgroup. (Thirty-ve minutes.) 5. The facilitator collects the Group Work Sheets and scores them as in step 4, while the participants debrief their consensus seeking. He or she then prepares a chart such as the one following, summarizing the statistics:</p> <p>6</p> <p>Pfeiffers Classic Activities for Building Better Teams/ 2003 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 7</p> <p>Before Subgroup Discussion Subgroup Average Individual Score 55 Score of Most Accurate Individual 45</p> <p>Example 1 2 3 Average for all subgroups</p> <p>After Subgroup Discussion Gain/Loss Over Most Accurate Individual +5</p> <p>Subgroup Example 1 2 3 Average for all Subgroups</p> <p>Score for Subgroup Consensus 40</p> <p>Gain/Loss Over Average Individual +15</p> <p>Synergy* Yes</p> <p>*Synergy is dened as the consensus score lower than the lowest individual score in the subgroup.</p> <p>6. The facilitator returns all Individual and Group Work Sheets and distributes a copy of the Lost at Sea Answer and Rationale Sheet to each participant. After allowing the subgroups a few minutes to discuss the answers and rationale, the facilitator analyzes the statistics and explains the synergy factor. 7. The facilitator leads a discussion of the comparative outcomes of individual rankings and subgroup consensus rankings. Discussion questions such as the following might be suggested by the facilitator:s</p> <p>What behaviors helped or hindered the consensus-seeking process?7</p> <p>Pfeiffers Classic Activities for Building Better Teams/ 2003 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 8</p> <p>s s s</p> <p>What patterns of decision making occurred? Who were the inuential members and how were they inuential? How did the group discover and use its information resources? Were these resources fully utilized? What are the implications of consensus seeking and synergistic outcomes for intact task groups such as committees and staffs of institutions? What consequences might such a process produce in the groups attitudes?</p> <p>s</p> <p>s</p> <p>Variationss</p> <p>Process observers can be used to give feedback about either subgroup or individual behavior. A lecturette on synergy and consensus seeking can immediately precede the group problem-solving phase to establish a mental set toward cooperation. Each participant can be given only one copy of the Lost at Sea Individual Work Sheet and instructed to score his or her own sheet.</p> <p>s</p> <p>s</p> <p>Originally published in The 1975 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators.</p> <p>8</p> <p>Pfeiffers Classic Activities for Building Better Teams/ 2003 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 9</p> <p>LOST AT SEA INDIVIDUAL WORK SHEETName Subgroup Instructions: You are adrift on a private yacht in the South Pacic. As a consequence of a re of unknown origin, much of the yacht and its contents have been destroyed. The yacht is now slowly sinking. Your location is unclear because of the destruction of critical navigational equipment and because you and the crew were distracted trying to bring the re under control. Your best estimate is that you are approximately one thousand miles south-southwest of the nearest land. Following is a list of fteen items that are intact and undamaged after the re. In addition to these articles, you have a serviceable, rubber life raft with oars. The raft is large enough to carry yourself, the crew, and all the items in the following list. The total contents of all survivors pockets are a package of cigarettes, several books of matches, and ve one-dollar bills. Your task is to rank the fteen items that follow in terms of their importance to your survival. Place the number 1 by the most important item, the number 2 by the second most important, and so on through number 15, the least important. Sextant Shaving mirror Five-gallon can of water Mosquito netting One case of U.S. Army C rations Maps of the Pacic Ocean Seat cushion (otation device approved by the Coast Guard) Two-gallon can of oil-gas mixture Small transistor radio Shark repellent Twenty square feet of opaque plastic One quart of 160-proof Puerto Rican rum Fifteen feet of nylon rope Two boxes of chocolate bars Fishing kitPfeiffers Classic Activities for Building Better Teams/ 2003 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc. 9</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 10</p> <p>LOST AT SEA GROUP WORK SHEETSubgroup Instructions: This is an exercise in group decision making. Your subgroup is to employ the group consensus method in reaching its decision. This means that the prediction for each of the fteen survival items must be agreed on by each subgroup member before it becomes a part of the subgroup decision. Consensus is difcult to reach. Therefore, not every ranking will meet with everyones complete approval. As a subgroup, try to make each ranking one with which all members can at least partially agree. Here are some guides to use in reaching consensus. 1. Avoid arguing for your own individual judgments. Approach the task on the basis of logic. 2. Avoid changing your mind if it is only to reach agreement and avoid conict. Support only solutions with which you are able to agree at least somewhat. 3. Avoid conict-reducing techniques such as majority vote, averaging, or trading in reaching your decision. 4. View differences of opinion as a help rather than a hindrance in decision making. Sextant Shaving mirror Five-gallon can of water Mosquito netting One case of U.S. Army C rations Maps of the Pacic Ocean Seat cushion (otation device approved by the Coast Guard) Two-gallon can of oil-gas mixture Small transistor radio Shark repellent Twenty square feet of opaque plastic One quart of 160-proof Puerto Rican rum Fifteen feet of nylon rope Two boxes of chocolate bars Fishing kit10 Pfeiffers Classic Activities for Building Better Teams/ 2003 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 11</p> <p>LOST AT SEA ANSWER AND RATIONAL SHEET1According to the experts, the basic supplies needed when a person is stranded in midocean are articles to attract attention and articles to aid survival until rescuers arrive. Articles for navigation are of little importance: Even if a small life raft were capable of reaching land, it would be impossible to store enough food and water to subsist during that period of time. Therefore, of primary importance are the shaving mirror and the two-gallon can of oil-gas mixture. These items could be used for signaling air-sea rescue. Of secondary importance are items such as water and food, e.g., the case of Army C rations. A brief rationale is provided for the ranking of each item. These brief explanations obviously do not represent all of the potential uses for the specied items but, rather, the primary importance of each. 1. Shaving mirror Critical for signaling air-sea rescue. 2. Two-gallon can of oil-gas mixture Critical for signalingthe oil-gas mixture will oat on the water and could be ignited with a dollar bill and a match (obviously, outside the raft). 3. Five-gallon can of water Necessary to replenish loss from perspiring, etc. 4. One case of U.S. Army C rations Provides basic food intake. 5. Twenty square feet of opaque plastic Utilized to collect rain water, provide shelter from the elements. 6. Two boxes of chocolate bars A reserve food supply. 7. Fishing kit Ranked lower than the candy bars because one bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. There is no assurance that you will catch any sh. 8. Fifteen feet of nylon rope May be used to lash equipment together to prevent it from falling overboard.Pfeiffers Classic Activities for Building Better Teams/ 2003 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc. 11</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 12</p> <p>9. Floating seat cushion If someone fell overboard, it could function as a life preserver. 10. Shark repellent Obvious. 11. One quart of 160-proof Puerto Rican rum Contains 80 percent alcoholenough to use as a potential antiseptic for any injuries incurred; of little value otherwise; will cause dehydration if ingested. 12. Small transistor radio Of little value because there is no transmitter (unfortunately, you are out of range of your favorite radio stations). 13. Maps of the Pacic Ocean Worthless without additional navigational equipmentit does not really matter where you are but where the rescuers are. 14. Mosquito netting There are no mosquitoes in the mid-Pacic Ocean. 15. Sextant Without tables and a chronometer, relatively useless. The basic rationale for ranking signaling devices above life-sustaining items (food and water) is that without signaling devices there is almost no chance of being spotted and rescued. Furthermore, most rescues occur during the rst thirty-six hours, and one can survive without food and water during this period.</p> <p>12</p> <p>Pfeiffers Classic Activities for Building Better Teams/ 2003 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/30/02 9:29 PM Page 13</p> <p>2Wilderness Survival A Consensus-Seeking TaskDonald T. SimpsonGoalss</p> <p>To teach effective consensus-seeking behaviors in task groups. To explore the concept of synergy as it relates to outcomes of group decision making.</p> <p>s</p> <p>Group SizeFive to twelve participants. Several subgroups may be directed simultaneously in the same room. (Synergistic outcomes are more likely to be achieved by smaller subgroups, i.e., ve to seven participants.)</p> <p>Time RequiredApproximately one and one-half hours.</p> <p>Materialss s</p> <p>A copy of the Wilderness Survival Work Sheet for each participant. A copy of the Wilderness Survival Group Brieng Sheet for each participant.</p> <p>Pfeiffers Classic Activities for Building Better Teams/ 2003 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.</p> <p>13</p> <p>GT.01-04.1-38 11/...</p>