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MA Course Old Church Slavonic Language and Culture Jos Schaeken, Russian and Eurasian Studies, Leiden University TABLES OLD CHURCH SLAVONIC – RUSSIAN: THE NOUN 1 Introductory remarks Do not interpret the OCS and Russian tables as ‘OCS Russ.’, but as ‘Proto-Slavic (South Slavic) OCS’, ‘Proto-Slavic (East Slavic) Russ.’, etc. (However, Russian does contain many OCS elements through a secondary borrowing process.) Two important Proto-Slavic morphological isoglosses: (a) Isg -o-stems: South Slavic -omь and North Slavic (West and East) -ъmь; (b) Apl - o-stems and Gsg and NApl - ā-stems: South Slavic and North Slavic (‘3’; Russ. -i comes from the hard-stem declension). OCS Npl = Vpl; Ndu = Adu = Vdu, Gdu = Ldu, Ddu = Idu; Nsgn = Asgn = Vsgn, Npln = Apln = Vpln; Nplf = Aplf. – Russ.: vocative and dual forms gradually disappeared in Old Russian. OCS: consonant alternations in stems ending in k, g, x as a result of velar palatalization. Russ.: alternations gradually disappeared in Old Russian. OCS: tables Id (kamenь), IIb (slovo), IIc (imę), IId (otročę), IIIc (mati), IIId (crьky) contain the (non-productive class of) consonant stems with GLsg -e and Gpl , and for masculine nouns (Id) Npl -e (cf. Russ. type гражданин ‘citizen’, Npl граждане). Category ‘animate-inanimate’. OCS: for ‘animate’ optional Asg = Gsg in masculine (very rarely also female) nouns. – Russ.: for ‘animate’ in declension class I masc. 2 Asg = Gsg, and in all classes Apl = Gpl. See also below, Appendix II. 1 Old Church Slavonic tables based on: Jos Schaeken & Henrik Birnbaum, Die altkirchenslavische Schriftkultur: Geschichte – Laute und Schriftzeichen – Sprachdenkmäler. München, 1999, pp. 218-224. 2 Russian declension classes: I masc. (слон), I neutr. (болóто), II (женá), III masc. (путь), III fem. (кость), Group и́мя, and Group мать and дочь.

TABLES OLD CHURCH SLAVONIC RUSSIAN: THE NOUN1 · MA Course Old Church Slavonic Language and Culture Jos Schaeken, Russian and Eurasian Studies, Leiden University TABLES OLD CHURCH

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  • MA Course Old Church Slavonic Language and Culture

    Jos Schaeken, Russian and Eurasian Studies, Leiden University

    TABLES OLD CHURCH SLAVONIC RUSSIAN: THE NOUN1

    Introductory remarks

    Do not interpret the OCS and Russian tables as OCS Russ., but as Proto-Slavic (South Slavic) OCS, Proto-Slavic (East Slavic) Russ., etc. (However, Russian does contain many OCS elements through a secondary borrowing process.)

    Two important Proto-Slavic morphological isoglosses: (a) Isg -o-stems: South Slavic -om and North Slavic (West and East) -m; (b) Apl - o-stems and Gsg and NApl - -stems: South Slavic - and North Slavic - (-3; Russ. -i comes from the hard-stem declension).

    OCS Npl = Vpl; Ndu = Adu = Vdu, Gdu = Ldu, Ddu = Idu; Nsgn = Asgn = Vsgn, Npln = Apln = Vpln; Nplf = Aplf. Russ.: vocative and dual forms gradually disappeared in Old Russian.

    OCS: consonant alternations in stems ending in k, g, x as a result of velar palatalization. Russ.: alternations gradually disappeared in Old Russian.

    OCS: tables Id (kamen), IIb (slovo), IIc (im), IId (otro), IIIc (mati), IIId (crky) contain the (non-productive class of) consonant stems with GLsg -e and Gpl -, and for masculine nouns (Id) Npl -e (cf. Russ. type citizen, Npl ).

    Category animate-inanimate. OCS: for animate optional Asg = Gsg in masculine (very rarely also female) nouns. Russ.: for animate in declension class I masc.2 Asg = Gsg, and in all classes Apl = Gpl. See also below, Appendix II.

    1 Old Church Slavonic tables based on: Jos Schaeken & Henrik Birnbaum, Die altkirchenslavische Schriftkultur: Geschichte Laute und Schriftzeichen Sprachdenkmler. Mnchen, 1999, pp. 218-224. 2 Russian declension classes: I masc. (), I neutr. (), II (), III masc. (), III fem. (), Group , and Group and .

  • TABLES OLD CHURCH SLAVONIC RUSSIAN: THE NOUN

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    OCS Ia: Masculine nouns in -/-, Gsg -a Nsg grad- lovk- vp- m- kraj- Gsg grad-a lovk- vp- m- kraj-a Dsg grad-u lovk-u/-ovi vp-u m-u/-evi kraj-u Asg grad- lovk-/= Gsg vp- m-/= Gsg kraj- Isg grad-om lovk-om vp-em m-em kraj-em Lsg grad- lovc- vp-i m-i kraj-i Vsg grad-e lov-e vp-u m-u kraj-u Npl grad-i lovc-i vp-i m-i kraj-i Gpl grad- lovk- vp- m- kraj- Dpl grad-om lovk-om vp-em m-em kraj-em Apl grad-y lovk-y vp- m- kraj- Ipl grad-y lovk-y vp-i m-i kraj-i Lpl grad-x lovc-x vp-ix m-ix kraj-ix NAdu grad-a lovk- vp- m- kraj-a GLdu grad-u lovk-u vp-u m-u kraj-u DIdu grad-oma lovk-oma vp-ema m-ema kraj-ema

    Historical declension class: masculine -o-/- o-stems.

    Russian Declension class I masc. Nsg Gsg Dsg Asg Isg Lsg Npl Gpl Dpl Apl Ipl Lpl

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: Russ. vocative . OCS Npl -i for hard -0-stem declension: cf. in Russian still neighbour, Npl ;

    devil, Npl (elsewhere -y, taken from Apl). Russ. Gpl -/-/- and -: see below, tables Ib and Ic. Russ. DILpl -/-, -/-, -/-, see below, table IIIa.

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    OCS Ib: Masculine noun in -, Gsg -u Nsg syn- Npl syn-ove NAdu syn-y Gsg syn-u Gpl syn-ov GLdu syn-ovu Dsg syn-ovi Dpl syn-om DIdu syn-ma Asg syn-/= Gsg Apl syn-y Isg syn-m/-om Ipl syn-mi Lsg syn-u Lpl syn-ox Vsg syn-u

    Historical declension class: masculine -u-stems. (The original Isg ending was -m, Dpl -m and Lpl -.)

    Old Church Slavonic: Non-productive class with about half a dozen of monosyllabic words, including syn son,

    vol ox, vrx top, dom house, med honey, pol half; gender. Merger of masculine -u- and -o/- o-stems already takes place in OCS; cf. table Ia with

    optional Dsg -ovi/-evi for human beings (lovkovi, mevi) and Vsg -u in - o-stems.

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: OCS Gsg -u Russ. Gsg -/- (second genitive): lots of snow (partitive);

    out of fear (fixed expressions). OCS Lsg -u Russ. Lsg -/- (second locative): in the garden, in battle. OCS Gpl -ov Russ. Gpl -/-/-: spreads to I masc. instead of original -/- >

    Russ. - , which still exists in various categories, like soldier, Gpl ; boot, Gpl ; eye, Gpl ; time, Gpl ; orange, Gpl (also ).

    See also below, Appendix I.

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    OCS Ic: Masculine nouns in -, Gsg -i Nsg pt- Npl pt-ije (-je) NAdu pt-i Gsg pt-i Gpl pt-ii (-i < *-j) GLdu pt-iju (-ju) Dsg pt-i Dpl pt-em/-m DIdu pt-ma Asg pt- Apl pt-i Isg pt-em/-m Ipl pt-mi Lsg pt-i Lpl pt-x/-x Vsg pt-i

    Historical declension class: masculine -i-stems. (The original Isg ending was -m, Dpl -m and Lpl -.)

    Old Church Slavonic: The declension of the non-productive class of masculine nouns in -, like pt road, is the

    same as the declension of the productive class of feminine nouns in -, like kost (see below, table IIIb), except for Isg and Npl.

    Except pt road, there are attestations of about twenty words in this class, including gvozd nail, golb dove, gost guest, friend, grtan throat, zt groom, udije (Pl tantum) people, tat thief, rv worm, gl coal, lakt elbow, ell, nogt nail, claw, peat seal, gospod lord, zvr beast, ogn fire.

    Russian Declension class III masc. Nsg Npl Gsg Gpl Dsg Dpl Asg Apl Isg Ipl Lsg Lpl

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: Russ. vocative . OCS Gpl -ii/-i < *-j Russ. Gpl - (see also below, table IIIb): extents into I masc.

    instead of original -/- > Russ. - . Russ. DILpl -, -, -, see below, table IIIa. OCS gvozd nail Russ. , -. OCS golb dove Russ. , -. OCS gost guest, friend Russ. , -. OCS nogt nail, claw Russ. , -. OCS zvr beast Russ. , - (NB Ipl , alternatively ). OCS grtan throat Russ. , - (III fem.). OCS peat seal Russ. , - (III fem.).

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    OCS Id: Masculine nouns in -, Gsg -e Nsg kamen- Npl kamen-e NAdu kamen-i Gsg kamen-e (-i) Gpl kamen- GLdu kamen-u/-iju (-ju) Dsg kamen-i Dpl kamen-em/-m DIdu kamen-ma Asg kamen- Apl kamen-i Isg kamen-em/-m Ipl kamen-mi Lsg kamen-e/-i Lpl kamen-x/-x Vsg kamen- (?)

    Historical declension class: masculine -n-stems (-men-/-en-). (The original GLsg ending was -e, Isg -m, Dpl -m and Lpl -.)

    Old Church Slavonic: The original Nsg -y is sporadically attested: kamy (instead of kamen) stone and plamy

    flame. Non-productive class with about half a dozen words, including kamen stone, plamen

    flame, koren root, prsten ring, remen belt, stepen stairs, jelen deer.

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: OCS kamen stone Russ. , -. OCS koren root Russ. , -. OCS remen belt Russ. , -. OCS jelen deer Russ. , -. OCS stepen stairs Russ. , - (III fem.). OCS plamen flame Russ. , - (Group ).

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    OCS IIa: Neuter nouns in -o/-e, Gsg -a Nsg lt-o blag-o po-e lo-e znamenij-e (-j-) Gsg lt-a blag- po- lo- znamenij-a Dsg lt-u blag-u po-u lo-u znamenij-u Asg lt-o blag-o po-e lo-e znamenij-e Isg lt-om blag-om po-em lo-em znamenij-em Lsg lt- bla- po-i lo-i znamenij-i Vsg lt-o blag-o po-e lo-e znamenij-e Npl lt-a blag-a po-a lo-a znamenij-a Gpl lt- blag- po- lo- znamenij- Dpl lt-om blag-om po-em lo-em znamenij-em Apl lt-a blag-a po-a lo-a znamenij-a Ipl lt-y blag-y po-i lo-i znamenij-i Lpl lt-x bla-x po-ix lo-ix znamenij-ix NAdu lt- bla- po-i lo-i znamenij-i GLdu lt-u blag-u po-u lo-u znamenij-u DIdu lt-oma blag-oma po-ema lo-ema znamenij-ema

    Historical declension class: neuter -o-/- o-stems.

    Russian Declension class I neutr. Nsg Gsg Dsg Asg Isg Lsg Npl Gpl Dpl Apl Ipl Lpl

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: Russ. DLpl -/-, Ipl-/- and Lpl -/-, see below, table IIIa.

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    OCS IIb: Neuter nouns in -o, Gsg -es-e Nsg slov-0 Npl slov-es-a NAdu slov-es- Gsg slov-es-e (-i) Gpl slov-es- GLdu slov-es-u Dsg slov-es-i Dpl slov-es-em DIdu slov-es-ma Asg slov-o Apl slov-es-a Isg slov-es-em Ipl slov-es-y Lsg slov-es-e/-i Lpl slov-es-x Vsg slov-o

    Historical declension class: neuter -es-stems. (The original GLsg ending was -e, Isg -m, Dpl -m and Lpl -.)

    Old Church Slavonic: Non-productive class with about a dozen words, including slovo word, nebo heaven,

    udo miracle, tlo body, kolo wheel, disc, isto intestines (only Pl and Du), oko eye (Gsg oese, Npl oesa; Du according to table IIIb: oi), uxo ear (Gsg uese, Npl uesa; Du according to table IIIb: ui).

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: Russ. heaven and miracle with insertion of s-, but only in plural. Thus: Gsg

    , Dsg ; Npl , Gpl , Dpl . OCS kolo wheel, disc Russ. , -. Russ. derivations of the type word word-; body

    bodily. Russ. Pl eyes and ears based on original Du forms (see above).

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    OCS IIc: Neuter nouns in -, Gsg -en-e Nsg im- Npl im-en-a NAdu im-en- Gsg im-en-e (-i) Gpl im-en- GLdu im-en-u Dsg im-en-i Dpl im-en-em DIdu im-en-ma Asg im- Apl im-en-a Isg im-en-em Ipl im-en-y Lsg im-en-e/-i Lpl im-en-x Vsg im-

    Historical declension class: neuter -n-stems (-men-). (The original GLsg ending was -e, Isg -m, Dpl, -m and Lpl -.)

    Russian Group Nsg Npl Gsg Gpl Dsg Dpl Asg Apl Isg Ipl Lsg Lpl

    Old Church Slavonic: Non-productive class with about half a dozen words: im name, brm burden, vrm

    time, plem tribe, people, sm seed, pism letter, writing, ism number.

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: Russ. DILpl -, -, -, see below, table IIIa. OCS im name Russ. ; brm burden ; vrm time ; plem tribe,

    people ; sm seed . OCS pism letter, writing Russ. letter (but letters,

    literature, written). OCS ism number Russ. . Russ. flame: see above, table Id. Russ. udder, banner, stirrup, crown: not attested in OCS.

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    OCS IId: Neuter nouns in -, Gsg -t-e Nsg otro- Npl otro-t-a NAdu otro-t- Gsg otro-t-e Gpl otro-t- GLdu otro-t-u Dsg otro-t-i Dpl otro-t-em DIdu otro-t-ma Asg otro- Apl otro-t-a Isg otro-t-em Ipl otro-t-y Lsg otro-t-e/-i Lpl otro-t-x Vsg otro-

    Historical declension class: neuter -ent-stems. (The original Lsg ending was -e, Isg -m, Dpl -m and Lpl -.)

    Old Church Slavonic: Non-productive class with about half a dozen of words (young or small beings): otro

    child, agn lamb, rb foal, kus beast of burden, kozl little goat, ov little sheep, osl young donkey.

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: OCS suffix -t- Russ. suffix --/-- in plural of words ending in -/- referring

    to young animals: kitten, Gsg ; Npl , Gpl , Dpl .

    The suffix -- can also be found in (obsolete) Russ. child, GDLsg , Isg / (now , Pl ).

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    OCS IIIa: Feminine (and masculine) nouns in -a, Gsg -y/- Nsg en-a rk-a zem-a du-a zmij-a (-j-) Gsg en-y rk-y zem- du- zmij- Dsg en- rc- zem-i du-i zmij-i Asg en- rk- zem- du- zmij- Isg en-oj rk-oj zem-ej du-ej zmij-ej Lsg en- rc- zem-i du-i zmij-i Vsg en-o rk-o zem-e du-e zmij-e Npl en-y rk-y zem- du- zmij- Gpl en- rk- zem- du- zmij- Dpl en-am rk-am zem-am du-am zmij-am Apl en-y rk-y zem- du- zmij- Ipl en-ami rk-ami zem-ami du-ami zmij-ami Lpl en-ax rk-ax zem-ax du-ax zmij-ax NAdu en- rc- zem-i du-i zmij-i GLdu en-u rk-u zem-u du-u zmij-u DIdu en-ama rk-ama zem-ama du-ama zmij-ama

    Historical declension class: feminine (partly masculine) --/- -stems.

    Russian Declension class II Nsg Gsg Dsg Asg Isg Lsg Npl Gpl Dpl Apl Ipl Lpl

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: Dpl -am, Ipl -ami and Lpl -ax of the --/- -stems gradually spread to all other

    declension classes during the Old Russian period.

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    OCS IIIb: Feminine nouns in -, Gsg -i Nsg kost- Npl kost-i NAdu kost-i Gsg kost-i Gpl kost-ii (-i < *-j) GLdu kost-iju (-ju) Dsg kost-i Dpl kost-em/-m DIdu kost-ma Asg kost- Apl kost-i Isg kost-ij (-j) Ipl kost-mi Lsg kost-i Lpl kost-x/-x Vsg kost-i

    Historical declension class: feminine -i-stems. (The original Dpl ending was -m and Lpl -.)

    Old Church Slavonic: The declension of the productive class of feminine words in -, like kost bone, is the

    same as the declension of the non-productive class of masculine nouns in -, like pt (see above, table Ic), except for Isg and Npl.

    Russian Declension class III fem. Nsg Npl Gsg Gpl Dsg Dpl Asg Apl Isg Ipl Lsg Lpl

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: Russ. DILpl -, -, -, see above, table IIIa. OCS Ipl ending -mi Russ. door, Ipl (alternatively );

    horse, Ipl (alternatively ) and others; also fall in action; work to death (often ironically).

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    OCS IIIc: Feminine nouns in -i, Gsg -er-e Nsg mat-i Npl mat-er-i NAdu (not attested) Gsg mat-er-e (-i) Gpl mat-er- GLdu (not attested) Dsg mat-er-i Dpl mat-er-em DIdu (not attested) Asg mat-er-/= Gsg Apl mat-er-i Isg mat-er-ij (-j) Ipl mat-er-mi Lsg mat-er-i Lpl mat-er-x Vsg mat-i

    Historical declension class: feminine -er-stems. (The original GLsg ending was -e, Dpl -m and Lpl -.)

    Old Church Slavonic: Non-productive class, including mati mother and dti daughter.

    Russian Group and Nsg Npl Gsg Gpl Dsg Dpl Asg Apl Isg Ipl Lsg Lpl

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: Russ. DILpl -, -, -, see above, table IIIa. OCS Ipl ending -mi Russ. daughter, Ipl (alternatively ).

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    OCS IIId: Feminine nouns in -y, Gsg -v-e Nsg crk-y Npl crk-v-i NAdu (not attested) Gsg crk-v-e (-i) Gpl crk-v- GLdu (not attested) Dsg crk-v-i Dpl crk-v-am DIdu (not attested) Asg crk-v-/= Gsg Apl crk-v-i Isg crk-v-ij (-j) Ipl crk-v-ami Lsg crk-v-e/-i Lpl crk-v-ax Vsg crk-y

    Historical declension class: feminine -u-stems. (The original GLsg ending was -e.)

    Old Church Slavonic: Non-productive class with about a dozen words, including crky, crkve church; uby,

    ubve love (also pruby adultery); kry (normally Nsg krv), krve blood; svekry, svekrve mother-in-law; buky, bukve letter; smoky, smokve fig; rny, rnve millstone; neplody, neplodv barren woman; cly, clve healing.

    Old Church Slavonic Russian: OCS crky, crkve church Russ. , - (III fem.). OCS uby, ubve love Russ. , - (III fem.). OCS kry (krv), krve blood Russ. , - (III fem.). OCS buky, bukve letter Russ. , -. OCS smoky, smokve fig Russ. , -. CS rny, rnve millstone Russ. , -.

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    Appendix I: Merger of -o- and -u-stems in Slavic

    OCS Russian Polish Czech BCS Nsg dym dyma dym dm dim Gsg dyma dyma, -u dymu dymu dima Dsg dymu dymu dymowi dymu dimu Asg dym dym dym dym dim Isg dymom dymom dymem dymem dimom Lsg dym dyme, - dymie dymu dimu Npl dymi dymy dymy dymy dimovi Gpl dym dymov dymw dym dimov Dpl dymom dymam dymom dymm dimovima Apl dymy dymy dymy dymy dimove Ipl dymy dymami dymami dymy dimovima Lpl dymx dymax dymach dymech dimovima

    Appendix II: Animate-inanimate (Townsend & Janda 1996: 155)3

    I see my: son, sons, wife, wives, dog, dogs Russian Polish Czech BCS Viu Widz Vidm Vidim Asg = Gsg syna, psa syna, psa syna, psa sina, psa Asg n on enu enu Apl = Gpl synovej, psov, n synw Apl ony, psy syny, eny, psy sinove, ene, pse

    3 Charles E. Townsend & Laura A. Janda, Common and Comparative Slavic: Phonology and Inflection: with special attention to Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian. Columbus OH, 1996.