American Business & ConsumerismGrowth of Big BusinessConglomerates: major corporation that includes small unrelated businessesExample: General ElectricFranchises: company that offers similar products or services at many locations Example: McDonalds was nations first & still is the largest today
AdvertisingBuy now, pay later plansEncourage spending!Ads radio, TV, movies, magazines, papers, billboards, etc.Use psychological strategies to sell productsHit on people's desire to belong keeping up with Jones Television major source of influence1950 Americans spent $6 BillionBy 1955, Americans spending $9 Billion
The American Dream60% of Americans make up middle class during the 1950sJobs changeBlue Collar Decrease ( ) (manufacturing jobs)White Collar Increase ( ) (clerical, managerial, sales, advertising, etc)Americans begin to socially conformBusinesses reward employees for teamwork, cooperation, & loyalty
Consumerism (buying material goods) becomes associated with success!People buy products & invest in leisure activitiesTo encourage consumerism, manufacturers used planned obsolesce: products designed to become obsolete, so consumers replace with new!
Blue Collar White Collar
Suburbia: areas outside of cities where new homes and communities were developing
Medical Breakthroughs Jonas Salk: develops vaccine for polioIn 1952: 58,000 children had polio, which either killed or crippled its victims With the vaccine, the number of people infected dropped to 5,700 by 1958Child rearing Dr. SpockRaise children based on guidelinesSold 10 million copies
Baby BoomersWhy???Reunion of families post-WWIIDecreasing marriage ageDesirability of a large familyConfidence of continued economic stabilityAdvances in medicine
Role of WomenGlorified role of housewifeBoredomFelt unfulfilled Many lost jobsWomen who did work were paid less and jobs they could perform were restrictedGlass-ceiling affectDespite both of these, the amount of women working increased!
40% of women with children workedMovies and television portray the perfect wife and motherMore than 1/5 of suburban wives & mothers were not satisfied with their lifeMore women attend college
Business & HighwaysTravel Easier
Interstate Highway system leads to the development of the trucking IndustryLong Haul is feasible now!
Evacuation in case of nuclear attack!
Developed under President Eisenhower
Social EffectsDrive-in movies
Advertising Industry for cars
Growth of suburbia: people can now use the car to commute into the city (80% build homes)
Cars are cheap
Gas is affordable
Radio & MoviesRadio:Continue to prosperRadio shows turn into TV showsBegin local programDiversity of stationsMovies: Struggle to compete with television3 technologies give movies an advantageStereo soundColor3-D effects
Golden Age of TVRapid expansion of TVThe Big Shows:Leave it to BeaverI Love Lucy (Lucille Ball, Desi Arnez)Milton Berle: comedianEdward Murrow: on the spot news
TV Spurs IndustryRefrigeratorsFrozen foodAdvertisingTrends and fadsTV Guide
Rock n Roll Famous Artists:Buddy HollyLittle RichardChuck BerryBill HaleyElvis Pressley the King of Rock n Roll!
Shows like Ed Sullivans Variety Show & Dick Clarks American Bandstand develop to showcase musicians through the TV
Rock-n-Roll comes from a mixture of white & black musicTeens loved it, parents hated it!Television becomes widely available by 1948! The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) regulates the industry.Quiz ShowsTrivia Game showsScandals ~ Women appear as perfect homemakers~ More males than females~ Few minorities~ Portrayed the ideal America = ignored the countrys problems
of Americans lived below the poverty line
The Other America: book that exposed how many are living in poverty
Urban RenewalTruman advocated for low income housingDevelop Housing & Urban Development (HUD) to improve the inner cities
White FlightMillions of whites move to the suburbs
Loss of tax $$ means loss of city services
Lots of rural poor to move the city
Adds up to breakdown of inner cities
Beatniks a.k.a. the Beat MovementSocial & literary nonconformists
Set precedent for hippy generationNon-material lifestyleShunned regular workLittle structureClashed with regular AmericaDefied mainstream society & conformityZen Buddhism, drugs, musicNOT being anything mainstream
During WWII immigration from MEXICO increasesUSA needs help harvesting cropsAfter WWII, many stay illegally
DiscriminationStill widely faced by all minoritiesCivil Rights Movement is slowly getting underway
Native Americans remain 2nd Class CitizensIndian Reorganization ActAimed to move away from assimilationMandated change socially, economically, and politicallyTermination PolicyFederal government would give up rights to tribesVoluntary relocation program