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  • The Basics of

    Efficient Lighting A Reference Manual for Training in Efficient Lighting Principles

    First Edition, December 2009

  • The Basics of Efficient Lighting

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    Comments Sought - by 31 March 2010 Comments are sought from stakeholders on this Edition of the Reference Manual. If you would like

    to make any comments or suggestions, please email Ren Webb at the Department of the

    Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, at ren.webb@environment.gov.au. The closing date for

    comments is 31 March 2010.

    Acknowledgments This First Edition was prepared under the National Framework for Energy Efficiency (Australia) in

    September 2009 by Trevor Stork FIES (Aust&NZ) and Moira Mathers, with project management by

    Beletich Associates. The authors gratefully acknowledge information from the following sources:

    • Osram - Product Training Program • Philips – Philips Lighting Academy • Light Naturally (Steve Coyne) • The Lighting Innovation Centre • Queensland University of Technology • RMIT University • The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency • The Department of the Environment, Water Heritage and the Arts

  • The Basics of Efficient Lighting

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    Table of Contents

    Acknowledgments............................................................................................................................... 2� Table of Contents................................................................................................................................ 3� 1� Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 5�

    1.1� The function of lighting ........................................................................................................... 5� 1.2� Why we use lighting ............................................................................................................... 6� 1.3� Fitness for purpose................................................................................................................. 6� 1.4� Definition of energy efficiency ................................................................................................ 6� 1.5� Definition of lighting design .................................................................................................... 6� 1.6� Sustainability and the importance of energy efficiency .......................................................... 7�

    2� Fundamentals of Light and Photometry ........................................................................................ 7� 2.1� The Nature of Light................................................................................................................. 7� 2.2� Introduction to Photometry ................................................................................................... 11� 2.3� Reflection, transmission & refraction.................................................................................... 21� 2.4� Colour................................................................................................................................... 24�

    3� Lamp Choices ............................................................................................................................. 29� 3.1� Incandescent lamps ............................................................................................................. 31� 3.2� Tungsten Halogen Lamps .................................................................................................... 40� 3.3� Fluorescent Lamps............................................................................................................... 55� 3.4� Compact fluorescent lamps.................................................................................................. 69� 3.5� High Intensity Discharge Lamps........................................................................................... 73� 3.6� LEDs..................................................................................................................................... 91� 3.7� Applications for conventional control gear............................................................................ 99� 3.8� Electronic Control Gear ........................................................................................................ 99�

    4� Lighting design.......................................................................................................................... 108� 4.1� Lighting design process...................................................................................................... 109� 4.2� Standards, Codes and Regulations.................................................................................... 115� 4.3� Australian Lighting Standards and Their Relevance .......................................................... 117� 4.4� Building in efficiency........................................................................................................... 117� 4.5� Use of daylight.................................................................................................................... 118�

    5� Selling efficiency and replacement technologies ...................................................................... 118� 5.1� Issues for consideration ..................................................................................................... 119� 5.2� Understanding labelling and packaging ............................................................................. 121� 5.3� Energy Saving Calculations ............................................................................................... 124�

    6� Sustainability............................................................................................................................. 126� 6.1� Electricity ............................................................................................................................ 126� 6.2� Materials............................................................................................................................. 127�

    7� Health consideration and lighting.............................................................................................. 128� 7.1� Flicker................................................................................................................................. 129� 7.2� Ultraviolet emissions .......................................................................................................... 130� 7.3� Mercury .............................................................................................................................. 132� 7.4� Electromagnetic compatibility............................................................................................. 134�

    8� Myths and Tips.......................................................................................................................... 135� 9� Case Studies............................................................................................................................. 136�

    9.1� Office Lighting .................................................................................................................... 136�

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    9.2� Factory Lighting.................................................................................................................. 138� 9.3� Residential Living Room..................................................................................................... 139� 9.4� Outdoor Security Lighting................................................................................................... 140� 9.5� Case Studies from Sustainability Victoria........................................................................... 141�

    Bibliography .................................................................................................................................... 150� Appendix 1: Standards ................................................................................................................... 151�

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    1 Introduction

    The purpose of this training material is three-fold. The first aim is to provide the lighting and allied industry

    workforce with an overview of the key principles of light and lighting which includes an understanding of basic

    design concepts and lighting technologies currently available, in the context of sustainability. The second aim

    is to help users understand the importance of energy efficiency and the implications of choosing a product in

    the overall scope of energy consumption. It also aims to assist users with the selection process when

    specifying, recommending, designing and installing various lighting systems.

    In residential dwellings, lighting energy consumption has increased dramatically with the popularity of halogen

    downlight systems, which are grossly inefficient when compared to the increasing range of residential

    compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). This is an example of where improved lighting design knowledge may

    lead to more efficient installations.

    Qualification as a lighting designer requires a great depth of knowledge in