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  • Master thesis in Sustainable Development 2019/42

    Examensarbete i Hållbar utveckling

    The declining significance of

    seagrass-associated invertebrate

    gleaning for providing food security

    in Kaole, Tanzania

    Johanna Lauritsen

    DEPARTMENT OF

    EARTH SCIENCES

    I N S T I T U T I O N E N F Ö R

    G E O V E T E N S K A P E R

  • Master thesis in Sustainable Development 2019/42

    Examensarbete i Hållbar utveckling

    The declining significance of seagrass-associated

    invertebrate gleaning for providing food security

    in Kaole, Tanzania

    Johanna Lauritsen

    Supervisor: Lina Mtwana Nordlund &

    Liberatus Dominick Lyimo

    Subject Reviewer: Johan Eklöf

  • Copyright © Johanna Lauritsen and the Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University Published at Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University (www.geo.uu.se), Uppsala, 2019

  • I

    Content

    1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 1

    2. Background .................................................................................................................................... 2

    2.1. Conceptual framework – food security ........................................................................................ 2

    2.1.1 Different ways to measure food security ................................................................................ 3

    2.1.2 Critique of the food security framework ................................................................................ 4

    2.2. Seagrass meadows and their ecosystems services ........................................................................ 5

    2.2.1. Seagrass-associated gleaning and food security .................................................................... 6

    2.2.2. Threats towards marine invertebrates.................................................................................... 8

    3. Methods ........................................................................................................................................... 8

    3.1. Study area - Kaole (Bagamoyo) ................................................................................................... 9

    3.2. Ethical concerns ......................................................................................................................... 10

    3.3. Multi-strategy research design ................................................................................................... 10

    3.4. Timing of the study .................................................................................................................... 12

    3.5. Limitations ................................................................................................................................. 12

    4. Results ........................................................................................................................................... 13

    4.1. Availability ................................................................................................................................. 14

    4.1.1. Availability: results from structured interviews .................................................................. 14

    4.1.1. Availability: results from focus groups discussions ............................................................ 16

    4.1.2. Availability: results from observations and gleaning landings ........................................... 16

    4.2. Accessibility ............................................................................................................................... 16

    4.2.1 Accessibility: results from structured interviews ................................................................. 16

    4.3. Utilisation ................................................................................................................................... 21

    4.3.1. Utilisation: results from structured interviews .................................................................... 21

    4.4. Stability over time ...................................................................................................................... 22

    4.4.1. Stability over time: results from structured interviews........................................................ 22

    4.4.2 Stability over time: result from focus groups discussions .................................................... 24

    5. Discussion ...................................................................................................................................... 24

    5.1. Availability ................................................................................................................................. 25

    5.2. Accessibility ............................................................................................................................... 26

    5.3. Utilisation ................................................................................................................................... 28

    5.4. Stability over time ...................................................................................................................... 29

    5.5 The way forward ......................................................................................................................... 30

    6. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 30

    7. Acknowledgements....................................................................................................................... 31

    8. References ..................................................................................................................................... 32

    9. Appendices .................................................................................................................................... 42

  • II

    The declining significance of seagrass-associated invertebrate gleaning for providing food security in Kaole, Tanzania

    JOHANNA LAURITSEN

    Lauritsen, J., 2019: The declining significance of seagrass-associated invertebrate gleaning for providing food

    security in Kaole, Tanzania. Master thesis in Sustainable Development at Uppsala University, No. 2019/42, 51 pp, 30 ECTS/hp

    Abstract:

    This thesis applies the food security concept to assess the significance of seagrass-associated invertebrate

    gleaning for providing food security in Kaole, Tanzania. It assesses the availability, accessibility, utilisation and

    stability over time of this food source. To explore this, a multi-strategy research design was used. Structured

    interviews were held with 30 gleaning women in Kaole, using a self-developed questionnaire designed to

    address the four components of the food security framework. Two focus group discussions were thereafter held

    to explore how local ecosystem services, in particular seagrass meadows, and their food provisioning services

    have developed over time. The findings show that a great majority of the women who engage in seagrass-

    associated gleaning in Kaole rate this activity as important or very important for providing food to the

    household. The seagrass-associated gleaning activities were perceived as important, despite the fact that most

    women also glean in the mangrove area and that almost all women have alternative incomes. However, seen

    from a strict food security perspective, it is questionable how significant this activity currently is for food

    security. The study found that availability has decreased and it is not a food source that is stable throughout the

    year. The findings also suggest that the mangrove-associated Terebralia palustris may be easier to utilise,

    considering that you can store it in a sack, without being kept cold. If mangrove related gleaning hence seems to

    play an increasingly important role in local food security, and is a fishery that is available in all seasons, this area

    is less accessible to potential gleaners with small children, elderly and people with physical disabilities. The

    study also found that the decline in seagrass-associated gleaning activities have coincided with a number of

    human stressors and deteriorating seagrass meadows. Despite its’ declining signinficance for food security, most

    women rate the seagrass-associated gleaning as important and want to protect this food source. Action should

    therefore be taken to sustainably preserve this provisioning resource. Bearing in mind the fine balance between

    ecological and food security needs, such measures need to be interdisciplinary. It also needs to involve different

    community members, as well as other stakeholders. More research would be needed to determine the nutritional

    content and potential toxic contents in the most fished invertebrate species.

    Keywords: Sustainable Development, food security, seagrass, small-scale fishery, invertebrates, Tanzania

    Johanna Lauritsen, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, SE- 752 36 Uppsala,

    Sweden

  • III

    The declining significance of seagrass-associated invertebrate