The Integumentary System. Integumentary System Integumentary system = Skin Nails Hair Glands Nerve endings

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  • The Integumentary System

  • Integumentary SystemIntegumentary system = Skin Nails Hair Glands Nerve endings

  • Integumentary System: FunctionsPROTECTION from:

    Mechanical damage Chemical damage Bacterial damage antibacterial secretionsUV radiation melanin pigment protectsThermal damage cold/pain receptorsDessication keratin waterproofing

  • Even more functionsHelps with heat loss or heat retention sweat glands and capillaries

    Helps excrete urea perspiration

    Makes Vitamin D sunlight converts cholesterol molecules in our skin

  • Skin Structure

  • 2 Types of Skin TissueEpidermisKeratinocytes that can make the protein keratin (become hard & tough)

    DermisConnective tissue that contains glands, capillaries and nerves

  • EpidermisThe StratumsCorneumLucidumGranulosumSpinosumBasale

    College Life Gives Snoopy Brains

  • Stratum BasaleThese are the stem cells of skin

    As they mature, they climb the layers of epidermis

    Melanocytes are here and make melanin (keratinocytes gobble up the melanin)

  • Melanin Pigment

  • Melanin Pigment Protects Nucleus

  • Stratum Spinosum

  • Stratum Granulosum

  • Stratum LucidumBy this point, cells are full of keratin and are dead

  • Stratum Corneum20 to 30 layers of dead skin cells filled with keratinWaterproofing materialThis layer is thicker on palms and solesBeauty is only skin deep?!

  • Harlequin IchthyosisAutosomal recessiveGenerate in 1 day the amount of skin a normal person would generate in 14 daysConstant care, moisturizing, bathing to remove keratin layerOldest living person is 24Blind from corneal abrasions

  • Harlequin Ichthyosis

  • Dermis: Papillary and Reticular

  • The Dermis Home of the Tattoo

  • Tattoo RemovalDermabrasionSalabrasion (rub with salt)CryosurgeryExcisionLatest: Q-switched lasersDifferent lasers for different color pigmentsBlack, purple, red easiestYellow, green hardest

  • Burns: 1st Degree1st degree: only epidermis is damagedHeal in 2 to 3 days without a problemSunburn without blistering

  • Burns: 2nd DegreeInjury to the epidermis and part of the dermisCharacterized by pain, redness, swelling, and blistersStill enough epithelial cells to regeneratePartial-thickness burn

  • Burns: 3rd DegreeWorstEntire epidermis and dermis is destroyedNo more stem cells, no blood supplyNo nerve endings (no pain, but only at first)Must skin graft

  • Examples of Burns

  • Rules of Nines

  • Skin Grafting

  • Albinism: Melanocytes, but no melanin

  • Albinism

  • Visual Problems in Albinism

  • Vitiligo: Destruction of Melanocytes

  • PsoriasisSilvery, scaly patches of skin overgrowthPrevalence 2 3 %Onset: 15-25 years of ageThought to be autoimmune

  • Cold SoresViral infectionHerpes Simplex Type 1

  • Hansens Disease (Leprosy)Spinalonga, Greece

  • 3 Main Types of Skin CancerBasal cell carcinoma:most commonleast malignantsun-exposed areas99% cure rate with excision

  • 3 Main Types of Skin CancerSquamous cell carcinoma:Shallow ulcer that wont healSun-exposed areasCan grow rapidlyMetastasizes (travels to lymph nodes and other parts of the body)

  • 3 Main Types of Skin CancerMalignant melanoma:Only about 5% of all skin cancers, but incidence is on the riseArises from accumulated damage to DNA in a melanocyteChance for survival: 50%ABCD rule

  • ABCD Rule of Malignant MelanomasAsymmetry: 2 sides of the pigmented spot do not matchBorder irregularity: borders are not smooth but exhibit indentationsColor: pigmented spot contains areas of different colors (black, brown, tan, red)Diameter: spot is larger than 6 mm in diameter (size of pencil eraser)

  • Skin AppendagesSebaceous (Oil) Glands

    Sweat Glands

    Hair and Hair Follicles

    Nails

  • Sebaceous GlandsEverywhere except palms and solesUsually empty into hair follicleMakes sebumKeeps skin soft/moistAntibacterialIncreased production during pubertyWhen gland is blocked: whiteheads/blackheads

  • Sweat Glands: 2 TypesEccrine glands: make sweatClear secretion of water, salts, urea, lactic acidAcidic, inhibits bacteriaApocrine glands: axilla (armpit) and genital areaContain sweat plus proteins/fats (not antibacterial)

  • Hair FolliclesHair follicle: makes the hairHair root: aliveHair shaft: dead material; almost all proteinArrector pili: tiniest muscles; goose bumps

  • NailsBody: thickened keratinRoot,nail fold and nail bed are aliveLunula: white moon

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